The Lung-Air Sac System of Birds

Development, Structure, and Function

  • John N. Maina

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages I-XV
  2. Pages 1-11
  3. Pages 13-63
  4. Pages 65-123
  5. Back Matter
    Pages 175-210

About this book


In biology, few organs have so eluded understanding as the lung-air sac system of birds. Considerable progress recently has been made in filling the gaps in knowledge, however. While summarizing and building on earlier observations and ideas, this book provides cutting-edge details on the development, structure, function, and evolutionary design of the avian respiratory system. Outlining the mechanisms and principles through which biological complexity and functional novelty have been crafted in a unique gas exchanger, this account will provoke further inquiries on the many still-unanswered questions. The specific goal of the book is to highlight the uniqueness of the design of the avian respiratory system and the factors that led to its development.


Aufbau, Luftsacksystem Vogel Luftsack Lunge Morphologie, Luftsacksystem Vogel Vogel air sac bird design, lung-air sac birds development lung morphology morphology, lung-air sac birds

Authors and affiliations

  • John N. Maina
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Anatomical Sciences Faculty of Health SciencesUniversity of the WitwatersrandJohannesburgSouth Africa

Bibliographic information