Environmental Stratified Flows

  • Vincenzo Armenio
  • Sutanu Sarkar

Part of the CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences book series (CISM, volume 479)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages I-VII
  2. Vincenzo Armenio
    Pages 1-73
  3. Chantal Staquet
    Pages 75-131
  4. F. T. M. Nieuwstadt
    Pages 179-232

About this book


Stratified flows, common in environmental and geophysical applications, are char­ acterized by the variation of fluid density in the vertical direction that can result in qualitative and quantitative modifications of the flow patterns by buoyancy . Unstable stratification (dense water/air above light water/air) increases the ver­ tical mixing by generation of convective cells while stable stratification generally suppresses vertical mixing of mass and momentum. Even so, a stably stratified fluid can support internal waves, instabilities and turbulence that play a critical role in transport and mixing. The ocean is predominantly subject to stable stratification which, under exter­ nal excitation, supports an environment of internal waves which may then break and generate turbulence. Wind forcing, currents and convective plumes are other sources of turbulence in the ocean. In the ocean, stratified turbulence mediates the upward transport of bottom water, nutrients, chemical and biological species, and pollutants. In the atmosphere, stratification affects the transport of pollutants released at ground level, a critical problem being the thermal inversion in urban areas that causes the stagnation of pollutants and small particulate (PM2.5 to PMIO) in the lower part of the atmospheric boundary layer. In buildings, strat­ ification governs the circulation of air and heat in natural ventilation systems.


Layer fluid mechanics geophysical fluid dynamic mathematical modeling mechanics mixing modeling turbulence turbulent flow waves

Editors and affiliations

  • Vincenzo Armenio
    • 1
  • Sutanu Sarkar
    • 2
  1. 1.University of TriesteItaly
  2. 2.University of CaliforniaUSA

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information CISM, Udine 2005
  • Publisher Name Springer, Vienna
  • eBook Packages Engineering Engineering (R0)
  • Print ISBN 978-3-211-28408-7
  • Online ISBN 978-3-211-38078-9
  • Series Print ISSN 0254-1971
  • Series Online ISSN 2309-3706
  • Buy this book on publisher's site