Elementary vortices – those tubular swirling vortical structures with concentrated vorticity commonly observed in various kinds of turbulent flows – play key roles in turbulence dynamics (e.g. enhancement of mixing, diffusion and resistance) and characterize turbulence statistics (e.g. intermittency). Because of their dynamical importance, manipulation of elementary vortices is expected to be effective and useful in turbulence control as well as in construction of turbulence modeling. The most advanced research works on elementary vortices and related problems were presented and discussed at the IUTAM Symposium in Kyoto, Japan, 26-28 October 2004. This book contains 40 contributions presented there, the subjects of which cover vortex dynamics, coherent structures, chaotic advection and mixing, statistical properties of turbulence, rotating and stratified turbulence, instability and transition, dynamics of thin vortices, finite-time singularity, and superfluid turbulence. The book should be useful for readers of graduate and advanced levels in the field of fluid turbulence.