Analyzing T Cell Responses

How to Analyze Cellular Immune Responses against Tumor Associated Antigens

  • Dirk Nagorsen
  • F.M. Marincola

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xii
  2. Dirk Nagorsen, Francesco M. Marincola
    Pages 1-7
  3. Paul F. Robbins
    Pages 9-42
  4. Theresa L. Whiteside, Michael Campoli, Soldano Ferrone
    Pages 43-81
  5. Victor Appay
    Pages 83-101
  6. Gideon Berke, William R. Clark
    Pages 103-121
  7. Philip D. Hodgkin, Edwin D. Hawkins, Jhaguaral Hasbold, Amanda V. Gett, Elissa K. Deenick, Hilary F. Todd et al.
    Pages 123-141
  8. Theresa L. Whiteside
    Pages 143-155
  9. Anatoli Malyguine
    Pages 157-174
  10. Carmen Scheibenbogen, Anne Letsch, Anne Marie Asemissen, Alexander Schmittel, Eckhard Thiel, Ulrich Keilholz
    Pages 175-182
  11. Mario Assenmacher
    Pages 183-195
  12. Peter P. Lee, Francesco M. Marincola
    Pages 197-217
  13. Pamela J. Skinner
    Pages 219-225
  14. Tim F. Greten, Firouzeh Korangy
    Pages 227-238
  15. Markus J. Maeurer
    Pages 239-260
  16. Utano Tomaru, Yoshihisa Yamano, Steven Jacobson
    Pages 261-274
  17. Udai S. Kammula
    Pages 275-284
  18. Ena Wang
    Pages 285-301
  19. Dirk Nagorsen, Francesco M. Marincola
    Pages 303-303
  20. Back Matter
    Pages 305-313

About this book


Active specific immunotherapy is a promising but investigational modality in the management of cancer patients. Currently, several different cancer vaccine formulations such as peptides, proteins, antigen-pulsed dendritic cells, whole tumor cells, etc. in combination with various adjuvants and carriers are being evaluated in clinical trials (1-3). To determine the optimal cancer vaccine strategy, a surrogate immunological end-point that correlates with clinical outcome needs to be defined, since it would facilitate the rapid comparison of these various formulations. Traditional immunological assays such as ELISA, proliferation and cytotoxicity assays can detect immune responses in vaccinated patients but are not quantitative. In contrast, novel assays such as enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay, intracellular cytokine assay and tetramer assay can quantitate the frequency of antigen-specific T cells. Of these, the ELISPOT assay has the 5 lowest detection limit with 1/10 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and has been determined to be one of the most useful assays to evaluate immune response to cancer vaccines (4). However, the IFN-? ELISPOT assay is not an exclusive measure of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity as non-cytotoxic cells can also secrete IFN-?. Additionally, CTL with lytic activity do not always secrete IFN-? (5). A more relevant approach to assess functional activity of cytotoxic lymphocytes would be to measure the secretion of molecules that are associated with lytic activity. One of the major mechanisms of cell-mediated cytotoxicity involves exocytosis of cytoplasmic granules from the effector toward the target cell.


Antigen T cell cancer cell cytokine cytotoxicity gene gene expression immunology immunotherapy lymphocytes proliferation tumor vaccine virus

Editors and affiliations

  • Dirk Nagorsen
    • 1
  • F.M. Marincola
    • 2
  1. 1.Charité University Medicine BerlinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.National Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA

Bibliographic information