Small-scale Freshwater Toxicity Investigations

Toxicity Test Methods

  • Christian Blaise
  • Jean-François Férard

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xx
  2. Introduction

    1. Christian Blaise, Jean-François Férard
      Pages 1-68
  3. Toxicity test methods

    1. B. Thomas Johnson
      Pages 69-105
    2. Ken Doe, Paula Jackman, Rick Scroggins, Don McLeay, Gary Wohlgeschaffen
      Pages 107-136
    3. Christian Blaise, Paule Vasseur
      Pages 137-179
    4. Jane P. Staveley, Jerry C. Smrchek
      Pages 181-202
    5. Jennifer Stauber, Natasha Franklin, Merrin Adams
      Pages 203-241
    6. Hans G. Peterson, Niels Nyholm, Norma Ruecker
      Pages 243-270
    7. Mary Moody, Jennifer Miller
      Pages 271-298
    8. Grzegorz Nałęcz-jawecki
      Pages 299-322
    9. Emilia Jonczyk, Guy Gilron
      Pages 337-393
    10. Douglas A. Holdway
      Pages 395-411
    11. Uwe Borgmann, Warren P. Norwood, M. Nowierski
      Pages 413-436
    12. Alexandre R.R. Péry, Raphaël Mons, Jeanne Garric
      Pages 437-451
    13. Vivian R. Dayeh, Kristin Schirmer, Lucy E.J. Lee, Niels C. Bols
      Pages 473-503
  4. Back Matter
    Pages 505-551

About this book


Developed, developing and emerging economies worldwide are collectively contributing multiple stresses on aquatic ecosystems by the release of numerous contaminants. This in turn demands that basic toxicological information on their potential to harm living species be available. Hence, environmental protection programs aimed at preserving water quality must have access to comprehensive toxicity screening tools and strategies that can be applied reliably and universally. While a good number of toxicity testing procedures and hazard assessment approaches have been published in the scientific literature over the past decades, many are wanting in that insufficient detail is available for users to be able to fully understand the test method or scheme and to be able to reproduce it successfully. Even standardized techniques published in recognized international standard organization documents are often lacking in thoroughness and minutiae. Paucity of information relating to biological test methods may be consequent and trigger several phenomena including generation of invalid data and resulting toxicity measurements, erroneous interpretation and decision-taking with regards to a particular chemical or environmental issue, or simply abandonment of testing procedures. Clearly, improperly documented toxicity testing methods can be detrimental to their promotion and use, as they open the doorway to unnecessary debate and criticism as to their raison d’être. Furthermore, this situation can indirectly contribute to delaying, minimizing or eliminating their application, thereby curtailing the important role toxicity testing plays in the overall protection and conservation of aquatic ecosystems.


Freshwater environments Hazard assessment Liquid media Solid media Toxicity testing algae bacteria hazard toxicity toxicology

Editors and affiliations

  • Christian Blaise
    • 1
  • Jean-François Férard
    • 2
  1. 1.St. Lawrence CentreEnvironment CanadaMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Laboratoire Ecotoxicité et Santé EnvironnementalePaul Verlaine University, MetzMetzFrance

Bibliographic information