Behavior and Social Issues

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 31–35 | Cite as

Morningside Academy

  • Kent Johnson


Morningside Academy is a private school in Seattle, Washington, offering an academic program for students in grades K-10. Many of the students have performed below their potential. Some have been diagnosed as having Learning Disabilities and others are said to have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Some are behind their peer group for no diagnosed reason. Initial remediation of academic skills is accomplished through the use of a combination of Direct Instruction for mastery of basic academic skills and Precision Teaching to build•rate. Once students have learned required basic skills, instruction shifts from Direct Instruction to concentrate on teaching thinking skills in reading comprehension, math, social studies and science. This is accomplished through the use of Talk-Aloud-Problem-Solving (TAPS) and peer tutors. Staff receive pre-service and ongoing in-service training. Teaching is adjusted as needed based on student performance. Ten years of standardized test data support gains in reading, language arts, and math averaging over two years gain per academic year.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Engelmann, S., & Carnine, D. (1982). Theory of instruction: Principles and application. New York: Irvington.Google Scholar
  2. Goldiamond, I. (1975). Alternative sets as frameworks for behavioral formulations and research. Behaviorism, 3, (1), 49–86.Google Scholar
  3. Johnson, K. R., & Kevo, H. (1993). Morningside phonics fluency. Seattle, WA: Morningside Academy.Google Scholar
  4. Johnson, K. R., & Layng, T.V.I. (1992). Breaking the structuralist barrier: Literacy and numeracy with fluency. American Psychologist, 47, 1474–1490. Scholar
  5. Lindsley, O. R. (1990). Precision teaching: By teachers for children. Teaching Exceptional Children, 22 (3), 10–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Sherman, I. G., Ruskin, R.S., & Semb, G. B. (1982). The personalized system of instruction: 48 seminal papers. Lawrence, KS: TRI Publications (Box 844, Lawrence, KA 66044).Google Scholar
  7. Whimbey, A., & Lochhead, J. (1982). Problem solving and comprehension. Philadelphia: The Franklin Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Association for Behavior Analysis International 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kent Johnson
    • 1
  1. 1.Morningside AcademySeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations