Advertisement

Comparative Migration Studies

, Volume 2, Issue 3, pp 305–333 | Cite as

Transnational Behavior in Comparative Perspective

The Relationship between Immigrant Integration and Transnationalism in New York, El Paso, and Paris
  • Ernesto CastañedaEmail author
  • Maria Cristina Morales
  • Olga Ochoa
Open Access
Article

Abstract

This paper examines transnationalism across migrant generational statuses in three urban centers. The objective of this study is to explore how immigrant integration influences the maintenance of social and economic connections with the communities-of-origin. To accomplish this objective we examine the impact of socio-economic status and generational status (first to third) on whether respondents remit, visit their communities-of-origin, or desire to return. The data for this study is based on survey data collected in New York City, New York, U.S.A.;El Paso, Texas, U.S.A.;and Paris, France. We find that transnational practices differ across the three locations. In Paris we find evidence of reactive transnationalism — looking abroad due to exclusion in the new society. In New York, however, there is more support for resource-based transnationalism — better legal and socioeconomic integration that allows for more transnational involvement. Transnationalism in El Paso differs from NYC and Paris in large part due to being located along the U.S.-Mexico border. Surprisingly, we find that El Paso respondents are less transnational than those in Paris or New York when it comes to remittances, visiting, and the desire to return to the sending community. We conclude by proposing a new typology of transnationalism that accentuates the contextual aspects of these practices.

Keywords

migrant transnationalism reactive transnationalism remittances third generation incorporation 

References

  1. Abrego, L. (2009). Economic Well Being in Salvador an Transnational Families: How Gender Affects Remittance Practices. Journal of Marriage and Family, 71(4), 1070–1085.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Åkesson, L., Carling, J., & Drotbohm, H. (2012). Mobility, Moralities and Motherhood: Navigating the Contingencies of Cape Verdean Lives. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 38(2), 237–260. doi:  10.1080/1369183X.2012.646420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alba, R. D., & Nee, V. (2003). Remaking the American Mainstream: Assimilation and Contemporary Immigration. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Basch, L., Glick Schiller, N., & Szanton-Blanc, C. (1994). Nations Unbound: Transnational Projects, Postcolonial Predicaments and the Deterritorialized Nation-State. Langhorne, PA: Gordon & Breach.Google Scholar
  5. Beaman, J. (2012). But madame, we are french also. Contexts, 11(3), 46–51. doi:  10.1177/1536504212456182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Besserer, F. (2004). Topografías Transnacionales: Hacia una Geografía de la Vida Transnacional. México DF, México: Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa; Plaza y Valdez Editores.Google Scholar
  7. Bloemraad, I., & Provine, D. M. (2013). Immigrants and Civil Rights in Cross-national Perspective: Lessons from North America. Comparative Migration Studies, 1(1), 45–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boehm, D. (2012). Intimate Migrations: Gender, Family, and Illegality among Transnational Mexicans. New York: NYU Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bowen, J. R. (2007). Why the French Don’t Like Headscarves: Islam, the State, and Public Space. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brubaker, R. (1992). Citizenship and Nationhood in France and Germany. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Brubaker, R. (2004). Ethnicity without Groups. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Calhoun, C. J. (2003). The Class Consciousness of Frequent Travelers: Toward a Critique of Actually Existing Cosmopolitanism. South Atlantic Quarterly, 101(4), 869–897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Campbell, H. (2009). Drug War Zone: Frontline Dispatches from the Streets of El Paso and Juárez (1st ed.). Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  14. Campbell, H., & Lachica, J. G. (2013). Transnational Homelessness: Finding a Place on the US-Mexico Border. Journal of Borderlands Studies, 28(3), 279–290. doi:  10.1080/08865655.2013.863441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cano, G., & Delano, A. (2007). The Mexican Government and Organised Mexican Immigrants in The United States: A Historical Analysis of Political Transnationalism (1848–2005). Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 33(5), 695–725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Castañeda, E. (2012a). Places of Stigma: Ghettos, Barrios and Banlieues. In R. Hutchison & B. D. Haynes (Eds.), The Ghetto: Contemporary Global Issues and Controversies (pp. 159–190). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  17. Castañeda, E. (2012b). Urban Citizenship in New York, Paris, and Barcelona: Immigrant Organizations and the Right to Inhabit the City In M. P. Smith & M. McQuarrie (Eds.), Remaking Urban Citizenship: Organizations, Institutions, and the Right to the City (Vol. 10, pp. 57–78). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  18. Castañeda, E. (2013). Living in Limbo: Transnational Households, Remittances and Development. International Migration 51(s1), 13–35. doi:  10.1111/j.1468-2435.2012.00745.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Castañeda, E., & Buck, L. (2011). Remittances, Transnational Parenting, and the Children Left Behind: Economic and Psychological Implications. The Latin Americanist, 55(4), 85–110. doi:  10.1111/j.1557-203X.2011.01136.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Castañeda, E., & Buck, L. (2014). A Family of Strangers: Transnational Parenting and the Consequences of Family Separation Due to Undocumented Migration. In L. A. Lorentzen (Ed.), Hidden Lives and Human Rights in America: Understanding the Controversies and Tragedies of Undocumented Immigration. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.Google Scholar
  21. de Haas, H., & Fokkema, T. (2011). The effects of integration and transnational ties on international return migration intentions. Demographic Research, 25(24), 755–782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dekker, B., & Siegel, M. (2013). Transnationalism and integration: Complements or Substitutes? Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT) Working Papers (Vol. IS). Maastricht, The Netherlands: United Nations University.Google Scholar
  23. Delano, A. (2011). Mexico and its Diaspora in the United States: Policies of Emigration since 1848. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dreby, J. (2010). Divided by Borders: Mexican Migrants and their Children. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  25. Dufoix, S. (2008). Diasporas. Berkeley: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Espiritu, Y. L. (1997). Asian American Women and Men: Labor, Laws, and Love. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.Google Scholar
  27. Fitzgerald, D. (2009). A Nation of Emigrants: How Mexico Manages its Migration. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  28. Foner, N. (1997). The Immigrant Family: Cultural Legacies and Cultural Changes. International Migration Review, 31(4), 961–974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Foner, N. (2000). From Ellis Island to JFK: New York’s Two Great Waves of Immigration. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press; Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  30. Gamio, M. ([1930] 1971). Mexican Immigration to the United States: A Study of Human Migration and Adjustment: Dover Publications.Google Scholar
  31. Glenn, E. N. (2002). Unequal Freedom: How Race and Gender Shaped American Citizenship and Labor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Glick Schiller, N. (2003). The Centrality of Ethnography in the Study of Transnational Migration: Seeing the Wetland instead of the Swamp. In N. Foner (Ed.), American Arrivals. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research.Google Scholar
  33. Glick Schiller, N., & Fouron, G. (1998). Transnational Lives and National Identities: The Identity of Politics of Haitian Immigrants. In M. P. Smith & L. E. Guarnizo (Eds.), Transnationalism From Below (pp. 130–161).Google Scholar
  34. Gmelch, G. (1980). Return Migration. Annual Review of Anthropology, 9(1), 135–159. doi: doi: 10.1146/annurev.an.09.100180.001031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gordon, M. M. (1964). Assimilation in American Life: the Role of Race, Religion, and National Origins. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Guarnizo, L. E., Portes, A., & Haller, W. J. (2003). Assimilation and Transnationalism: Determinants of Transnational Political Action among Contemporary Migrants. American Journal of Sociology, 108(6), 1211–1248. doi:  10.1086/375195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Heyman, J. M. (2012). Culture Theory and the US-Mexico Border. In H. Donnan & T. Wilson (Eds.), A Companion to Border Studies (pp. 48–65). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Iskander, N. N. (2006). Innovating Government: Migration Development, and the State in Morocco and Mexico, 1963–2005. Ph.D. Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  39. Itzigsohn, J. (2009). Encountering American Faultlines: Race, Class, and the Dominican Experience in Providence. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  40. Itzigsohn, J., & Giorguli-Saucedo, S. (2002). Immigrant Incorporation and Sociocultural Transnationalism. International Migration Review, 36(3), 766–798. doi:  10.1111/j.1747-7379.2002.tb00104.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jiménez, T. R. (2010). Replenished Ethnicity: Mexican Americans, Immigration, and Identity. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  42. Kasinitz, P., Mollenkopf, J. H., Waters, M. C., & Holdaway, J. (2008). Inheriting the City: the Children of Immigrants Come of Age. New York, NY & Cambridge, MA: Russell Sage Foundation; Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Kearney, M. (1995). The Local and the Global: The Anthropology of Globalization and Transnationalism. Annual Review of Anthropology, 24, 547–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lacorne, D. (2003). La crise de l’identité américaine: du melting-pot au multiculturalisme. Paris: Galimard.Google Scholar
  45. Levitt, P. (1998). Social remittances: Migration driven local-level forms of cultural diffusion. International Migration Review, 32(4), 926–948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Levitt, P. (2001). The Transnational Villagers. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  47. Levitt, P. (2007). God Needs no Passport: Immigrants and the Changing American Religious Landscape. New York, NY: New Press.Google Scholar
  48. Levitt, P., & Waters, M. C. (2002). The Changing Face of Home: the Transnational Lives of the Second Generation. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  49. Lucassen, L. (2005). The Immigrant Threat: the Integration of Old and New Migrants in Western Europe since 1850. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  50. Marcus, G. (1995). Ethnography in/of the World-System. The Emergence of Multi-Sited Ethnography. Annual Review of Anthropology, 24, 95–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Martiniello, M. (2013). Comparisons in Migration Studies. Comparative Migration Studies, 1(1), 7–22. doi:  10.5117/cms2013.1.martCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Massey, D. S. (1987). The Ethnosurvey in Theory and Practice. International Migration Review, 21(4), 1498–1522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Massey, D. S., Alarcon, R., Durand, J., & González, H. (1987). Return to Aztlan: the Social Process of International Migration from Western Mexico. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  54. Massey, D. S., & Zenteno, R. (2000). A Validation of the Ethnosurvey: The Case of Mexico-U.S. Migration. International Migration Review, 34(3), 766–793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mooney, M. A. (2009). Faith Makes us Live: Surviving and Thriving in the Haitian Diaspora. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  56. Morales, C., Morales, O., Menchaca, A. C., & Sebastian, A. (2013). The Mexican Drug War and the Consequent Population Exodus: Transnational Movement at the U.S.-Mexican Border. Societies, 1(3), 80–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Morawska, E. (2001). Immigrants, Transnationalism, and Ethnicization: A Comparison of this Great Wave and the Last. In G. Gerstle & J. Mollenkopf (Eds.), E Pluribus Unum? Contemporary and Historical Perspectives on Immigrant Political Incorporation (pp. 175–212). New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  58. Neuman, W. L. (2011). Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  59. Ong, A. (1999). Flexible Citizenship: The Culture Logic of Transnationality. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Pasura, D. (2011). Modes of incorporation and transnational Zimbabwean migration to Britain. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 36(1), 199–218. doi:  10.1080/01419870.2011.626056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Portes, A., Escobar, C., & Arana, R. (2009). Divided or Convergent Loyalties?: The Political Incorporation Process of Latin American Immigrants in the United States. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 50(2), 103–136. doi:  10.1177/0020715208101595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Portes, A., Haller, W. J., & Guarnizo, L. E. (2002). Transnational entrepreneurs: an alternative form of immigrant economic adaptation 67. American Sociological Review, 67(2), 278–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Portes, A., & Rumbaut, R. G. (2006). Immigrant America: a Portrait (3rd ed.). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  64. Roth, W. D. (2012). Race Migrations: Latinos and the Cultural Transformation of Race. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Sassen, S. (1996). Losing Control? Sovereignty in an Age of Globalization. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Sassen, S. (2001). The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo (2nd ed.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Saxenian, A. (2006). The New Argonauts: Regional Advantage in a Global Economy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  68. Sayad, A. (2004). The Suffering of the Immigrant. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  69. Sayad, A. (2006). L’immigration ou les Paradoxes de l’Altérité: L’illusion du Provisoire (Vol. 1): Editions Liber.Google Scholar
  70. Silverstein, P. A. (2004). Algeria in France: Transpolitics, Race, and Nation. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Singer, M. (1999). Studying Hidden Populations. In J. J. Schensul, Margaret D. LeCompte, Robert, Trotter II, Ellen H. Crowley, and Merrill Singer (Ed.), Mapping Social Networks, Spatial Data, and Hidden Populations (pp. 125–191). Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.Google Scholar
  72. Smith, M. P., & Guarnizo, L. E. (Eds.). (1998). Transnationalism from below. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  73. Smith, R. C. (1998). Transnational Localities: Community, Technology and the Politics of Membership within the Context of Mexico and U.S. Migration. In M. P. Smith & L. E. Guarnnizo (Eds.), Transnationalism from Below (pp. 196–238).Google Scholar
  74. Smith, R. C. (2003). Diasporic Memberships in Historical Perspective: Comparative Insights from the Mexican and Italian Cases. International Migration Review, 37(3), 722–757.Google Scholar
  75. Smith, R. C. (2006). Mexican New York: Transnational Lives of New Immigrants. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  76. Snel, E., Engbersen, G., & Leerkes, A. (2006). Transnational involvement and social integration. Global Networks, 6(3), 285–308. doi:  10.1111/j.1471-0374.2006.00145.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Soysal, Y. N. (1994). Limits of Citizenship: Migrants and Postnational Membership in Europe. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  78. Suarez-Orozco, C., Todorova, I. L. G., & Louie, J. (2002). Making Up For Lost Time: The Experience of Separation and Reunification Among Immigrant Families. Family Process, 41(4), 19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Thomas, W. I., & Znaniecki, F. (1918). The Polish Peasant in Europe and America: Monograph of an Immigrant Group. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  80. Tilly, C. (2007). Trust Networks in Transnational Migration. Sociological Forum, 22(1).Google Scholar
  81. Vila, P. (2000). Crossing Borders, Reinforcing Borders: Social categories, metaphors, and narrative identities on the U.S.-Mexico frontier (1st ed.). Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  82. Weil, P. (2005). Qu’est-ce qu’un français? Histoire de la nationalité française depuis la Révolution (Nouvelle édition revue et augmentée ed.). Paris: Gallimard.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2014

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits use, duplication, adaptation, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ernesto Castañeda
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Maria Cristina Morales
    • 3
  • Olga Ochoa
    • 4
  1. 1.Centre on Migration, Policy, and Society (COMPAS)University of OxfordOxfordUK
  2. 2.New School for Social ResearchZolberg Institute on Migration and MobilityNew York CityUSA
  3. 3.Department of Sociology and AnthropologyUniversity of TexasEl PasoUSA
  4. 4.University of TexasEl PasoUSA

Personalised recommendations