Optical Planar Waveguides Fabricated by Using Carbon Ion Implantation in Terbium Gallium Garnet
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Optical planar waveguides in terbium-gallium-garnet (TGG) crystals are promising photonic devices, particularly for optical isolators and rotators. In this work, to the best of our knowledge, we report on the fabrication and the characterization of TGG waveguides for the first time. The fabrication procedure involved carbon ion implantation at an energy of 6.0 MeV and a fluence of 5.0×1014 ions/cm2. The effective refractive indices of the propagation modes in the carbonimplanted waveguide were measured by using the prism-coupling technique. The profile of the refractive index and the distribution of the near-field intensity were calculated by using the reflectivity calculation method and the finite-difference beam propagation method, respectively. The carbon-implanted TGG waveguide is considered to be a candidate for a magneto-optical photonic device.
KeywordsWaveguide Terbium gallium garnet Ion implantation
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