Journal of the Korean Physical Society

, Volume 62, Issue 4, pp 684–694 | Cite as

Correlations between the MR Diffusion-weighted Image (DWI) and the bone mineral density (BMD) as a function of the soft tissue thickness-focus on phantom and patient

  • Myung-Sam Kim
  • Jae-Hwan Cho
  • Hae-Kag Lee
  • Sang-Jeong Lee
  • Cheol-Soo Park
  • Kyung-Rae Dong
  • Yong-Soon Park
  • Woon-Kwan Chung
  • Jong-Woong Lee
  • Ho-Sung Kim
  • Eun-Hye Kim
  • Dae Cheol Kweon
  • Hwa-Yeon Yeo
Article
  • 84 Downloads

Abstract

In this study we used lumbar phantoms to determine if the BMD (bone mineral density) changes when only the thickness of soft tissue is increased. Second, we targeted osteoporosis patients to analyze the dependences of the changes in the SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) and the ADC (apparent diffusion coefficient) on changes in T-score. We used a bone mineral densitometer, phantoms such as an aluminum spine phantom (ASP), a Hologic spine phantom (HSP), and a European spine phantom (ESP), five sheets of acrylic panel, and a water bath to study the effects of changes in the thickness of soft tissue. First, we measured the ASP, the HSP and the ESP. For the measurement of the ASP, we filled it with water to increase the height by 0.5 cm starting from the baseline height. We then did three measurements for each height. For the measurements of the HSP and the ESP, we placed an acrylic panel on the phantom and then did three measurements at each height. We used the ASP to calculate the degree of precision of the standard mode and the thick mode at the maximum height of the water bath. To assess the degree of precision in the measurements of the three types of phantoms, we calculated precision errors and analyzed the correlation between the change in the thickness of soft tissue and the variables of the BMD. Using DWIs (diffusion weighted images), we targeted 30 healthy persons without osteoporosis and 30 patients with a finding of osteoporosis and measured the T-scores for the L1 — L4 (lumbar spine) segments of by the spine using the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) before classifying the measurement at each part of the spine as osteopenia or osteoporosis. We measured the signal intensity on all four parts of L1-L4 in the DWIs obtained using a 1.5T MR scanner and measured the ADC in the ADC map image. We compared changes in the SNR and the ADC for each group. The study results confirmed that an increase in the thickness of the soft tissue had a significant correlation with the BMD and that the SNR and the ADC decreased as the T-score in the DWI went down.

Keywords

Thickness of soft tissue BMD value T-score DWI SNR ADC 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    B. L. Riggs and L. J. Melton, N. Engl. J. Med. 327, 602 (1986).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    P. N. Goodwin, Semin. Nucl. Med. 17, 293 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    T. Masud, S. Langley, P. Wiltshire, D. V. Doyle and T. D. Spector, Brit. Med. J. 379, 172 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    J. A. Kanis, J. Bone Miner. Res. 5, 209 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    J. A. Kanis, L. J. Melton and C. Christiansen, J. Bone Miner. Res. 9, 1137 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    J. A. Kanis, Osteoporosis Int. 4, 368 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    J. S. Park et al., J. Korean Rheum. Assoc. 10, 45 (2003).Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    S. Hough, S. Afr. Med. J. 93, 85 (2003).Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    S. Ralston, Best Pract. Res. Clin. Rh. 19, 487 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    R. Hamdy, S. Petak and L. Lenchik, J. Clin. Densitom. 5, 11 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    J. S. Moon and K. C. Won, Yeungnam Univ. J. Med. 25, 19 (2008).Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    D. Chien, K. K. Kwong and D. R. Gress, Am. J. Neuroradiol. 13, 1097 (1992).Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    R. C. Hamdy, S. M. Petak and L. Lenchik, J. Clin. Densitom. 5, 11 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    J. E. Sarlls, R. D. Newbould, M. I. Altbach, A. F. Gmitro, J. Seeger and T. P. Trouard, Magn. Reson. Med. 53, 1347 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    L. G. Raisz, J. Clin. Invest. 115, 3318 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    S. Khosla, Endocrinology 142, 5050 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    S. C. Manolagas, Endocr. Rev. 21, 115 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    C. C. Gluer, G. Blake, Y. Lu, B. A. Blunt, M. Jergas and H. K. Genant, Osteoporosis Int. 5, 262 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    J. T. Schousboe, C. R. DeBold, C. Bowles, S. Glickstein and R. K. Rubino, J. Clin. Densitom. 5, 239 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    H. S. Kim and K. R. Dong, J. Korea Cont. Assoc. 9, 174 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    W. Mayo-Smith and D. I. Rosenthal, Radiol. Clin. N. Am. 29, 37 (1991).Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    E. S. Siris et al., J. Am. Med. Assoc. 286, 2815 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    A. Licata, Clev. Clin. J. Med. 76, 331 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    D. K. Yeung, S. Y. Wong and J. F. Griffith, J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 19, 222 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    C. J. Rosen and M. L. Bouxsein, Nature Clin. Pract. Rheum. 2, 35 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    Y. Nonomura, M. Yasumoto, R. Yoshimura, K. Haraguchi, S. Ito, T. Akashi and I. Ohashi, J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 13, 757 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    R. Ward, S. Caruthers, C. Yablon, M. Blake, M. DiMasi and S. Eustace, Am. J. Roentgenol. 174, 731 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    J. H. Cho and H. G. Kim, J. Magn. 17, 219 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    J. Lasbleiz, A. Askri, F. Le Duff, O. Decaux, F. Marin and R. Duvauferrier, J. Radiol. 3, 291 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Physical Society 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Myung-Sam Kim
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jae-Hwan Cho
    • 2
    • 3
  • Hae-Kag Lee
    • 3
  • Sang-Jeong Lee
    • 3
  • Cheol-Soo Park
    • 4
  • Kyung-Rae Dong
    • 5
    • 6
  • Yong-Soon Park
    • 5
  • Woon-Kwan Chung
    • 6
  • Jong-Woong Lee
    • 7
    • 8
  • Ho-Sung Kim
    • 9
  • Eun-Hye Kim
    • 9
  • Dae Cheol Kweon
    • 10
  • Hwa-Yeon Yeo
    • 11
  1. 1.MS Medicamp CompanyDaeguKorea
  2. 2.Department of International Radiological ScienceHallym University of Graduate StudiesSeoulKorea
  3. 3.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringSoonchunhyang UniversityAsanKorea
  4. 4.Department of Radiological ScienceHallym Polytechnic UniversityChuncheonKorea
  5. 5.Department of Radiological TechnologyGwangju Health College UniversityGwangjuKorea
  6. 6.Department of Nuclear EngineeringChosun UniversityGwangjuKorea
  7. 7.Department of RadiologyKyung Hee University Hospital at Gang-dongSeoulKorea
  8. 8.Department of Electronics and Communications EngineeringGwangwoon UniversitySeoulKorea
  9. 9.Department of Nuclear MedicineAsan Medical CenterSeoulKorea
  10. 10.Department of Radiologic ScienceShin Heung UniversityUijeongbuKorea
  11. 11.Department of RadiologyNambu UniversityGwangjuKorea

Personalised recommendations