Fluorine-doped SnO2 inverse opal (FTO IO) was developed on a polystyrene bead template with a size of 350 nm (± 20 nm) by using the sol-gel-assisted spin-coating method. The resulting FTO IO film exhibited a pore diameter of 270 nm (± 5 nm), and a WO3 layer was electrodeposited with a constant charge of 400 mC/cm2, followed by a high-temperature annealing process (400, 475, and 550 °C) to increase the crystallinity of the IO films. The annealing temperature affected the morphology and the overall resistance of the thin film, thus significantly affecting the photoelectrochemical performance. In particular, the FTO/WO3 IO film annealed at 475 °C exhibited a photocurrent density of 2.9 mA/cm2 at 1.23 V versus normal hydrogen electrode, showing more than a three times higher photocurrent density in comparison with the other samples (550 °C), which is attributed to the large surface area and low resistance for the charge transport. Therefore, the annealing temperature significantly affects the morphological and the photoelectrochemical features of the FTO/WO3 IO films.
Photoelectrochemical water splitting WO3Core-shell nanostructure Annealing temperature
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