Inorganic arsenic (iAs) in food is much more toxic than organic. Four arsenic species, arsenite (AsIII), arsenate (AsV), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsenic acid (DMA) in polished rice cultivated at the mining areas of Korea were evaluated. A methanol-water (1:1) mixture was used for extraction of As compounds and an anion Hamilton PRP X-100 column for As species separation in HPLC-ICP-MS. The limits of detection were 5.3, 3.7, 19.2, and 3.7 ώg/kg on dry weight basis for AsIII, AsV, MMA, and DMA, respectively. When this method was applied to eleven polished rice samples, the mean value of iAs content in total As was approximately 57%.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Ackley KL, B’Hymer C, Sutton KL, and Caruso JA (1999) Speciation of arsenic in fish tissue using microwave assisted extraction followed by HPLC-ICP-MS. J Anal At Spectrom 14, 845–850.
Benramdane L, Bressolle F, and Vallon JJ (1999) Arsenic speciation in humans and food products: a review. J Chromatogr Sci 37, 330–344.
D’Amato M, Forte G, and Caroli S (2004) Identification and quantification of major species of arsenic in rice. J AOAC Int 87, 238–243.
Gallagher PA, Murray S, Wei X, Schwegel CA, and Creed JT (2002) An evaluation of sample dispersion media used with accelerated solvent extraction for the extraction and recovery of arsenicals from LFB and DORM-2. J Anal At Spetrom 17, 581–586.
Hirata S and Toshimitsu H (2005) Determination of arsenic species and arsenosugars in marine samples by HPLC-ICP-MS. Anal Bioanal Chem 383, 454–460.
IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) (2004) Some drinking-water disinfectants and contaminants, including arsenic. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Human. Volume 84, WHO, Geneva, Greece.
Koch I, McPherson K, and Smith P (2007) Arsenic bioaccessibility and speciation in clams and seaweed from a contaminated marine environment. Marine Pollut Bull 54, 586–594.
Park KS, Kim JS, Lee HM, Pyo HS, Kim ST, and Lee KB (2005) Speciation of six arsenic compounds in Korean seafood samples by HPLC-ICP-MS. Key Eng Mater 277-279, 431–437.
Pizarro I, Gomez M, Palacios MA, and Camara C (2003) Evaluation of stability of arsenic species in rice. Anal Bioanal Chem 376, 102–109.
Sanz E, Muñoz-Olivas R, and Cámara C (2005) Evaluation of a focused sonication probe for arsenic speciation in environmental and biological samples. J Chromatography A 1097, 1–8.
Schoof RA, Yost LJ, Eickhoff J, Crecelius EA, Cragin DW, Meacher DM, and Menzel DB (1999) A Market basket survey of inorganic arsenic in food. Food Chem Toxicol 37, 839–846.
Soros C, Bodo ET, Fodor P, and Morabito R (2003) The potential of arsenic speciation in molluscs for environmental monitoring. Anal Bioanal Chem 377, 25–31.
Su YH, McGrath SP, and Zhao FJ (2010) Rice is more efficient in arsenite uptake and translocation than wheat and barley. Plant Soil 328, 27–34.
WHO (World Health Oragnization) (1989) Toxicological evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants-arsenic. WHO Food Additives Series 24, WHO, Geneva.
WHO (World Health Oragnization) (2009) Document for information and use in discussions related to contaminant and toxins in the GSCTE. Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme Codex Committee on Contaminants in Foods, 3rd session, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Williams PN, Price AH, Raab A, Hossain SA, Feldmann J, and Meharg AA (2005) Variation in arsenic speciation and concentration in paddy rice related to dietary exposure. Environ Sci Technol 39, 5531–5540.
Zavala Y and Duxvury JM (2008) Arsenic in rice: 1. Estimating normal levels of total arsenic levels in rice grain. Environ Sci 42, 3456–3460.
Zhu YG, Sun GX, Lei M, Teng M, Liu YX, Chen NC, Wang LH, Carey AM, Deacon C, Raab A, Meharg AA, and Williams PN (2008) High percentage inorganic arsenic content of mining impacted and nonimpacted Chinese rice. Environ Sci Technol 42, 5008–5018.
About this article
Cite this article
Paik, MK., Kim, MJ., Kim, WI. et al. Determination of arsenic species in polished rice using a methanol-water digestion method. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 53, 634–638 (2010). https://doi.org/10.3839/jksabc.2010.096
- arsenic species
- methanol-water digestion