Metabolic Fingerprinting Study on the Substantial Equivalence of Genetically Modified (GM) Chinese Cabbage to Non-GM Cabbage
Genetically modified (GM) Chinese cabbage containing the bar gene was compared to 24 non-GM Chinese cabbage varieties to evaluate unwanted changes in GM crops using HPLC-DAD-based metabolic fingerprinting to characterize polar metabolites containing flavonoids. No new compounds distinguishing GM crops from non-GM crops were observed using this technique. The GM crops had the similar flavonoid value as its nontransgenic counterpart (cv. Samjin). Moreover, the luteolin, quercetin, and kaempferol contents in GM Chinese cabbage were within the range of the 24 cultivars. The metabolome database included major 26 chemical species, which were analyzed with principal component analysis. The results clearly demonstrated that the time of sampling affects the metabolome. Moreover, the metabolic fingerprints showed a range of natural variability in the GM Chinese cabbage that was similar to that of the control at all times of sampling. Metabolic fingerprinting could potentially provide an innovative method for safety assessments of genetically modified organisms.
Key wordsChinese cabbage flavonoid genetically modified crop HPLC-DAD metabolic fingerprinting substantial equivalence
principal component analysis
principal component 1
principal component 2
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Baek HJ, Won SY, Kim JK, Sohn SI, Lee KP, Cho MR, Song JK, Yoon MS, Lee JR, Jin YM, and Ryu TH (2008) Study on the gene introgression from GM Chinese cabbage to major crops in cruciferae. Korean J Intl Agric 20, 124–129.Google Scholar
- Catchpole GS, Beckmann M, Enot DP, Mondhe M, Zywicki B, Taylor J, Hardy N, Smith A, King RD, Kell DB, Fiehn O, and Draper J (2005) Hierarchical metabolomics demonstrates substantial compositional similarity between genetically modified and conventional potato crops. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102, 14458–14462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cellini F, Chesson A, Colquhoun I, Constable A, Davies HV, Engel KH, Gatehouse AMR, Kärenlampi S, Kok EJ, Leguay JJ, Lehesranta S, Noteborn HPJM, Pedersen J, and Smith M (2004) Unintended effects and their detection in genetically modified crops. Food Chem Toxicol 42, 1089–1125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Harbaum B, Hubbermann EM, Wolff C, Herges R, Zhu Z, and Schwarz K (2007) Identification of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids in pak choi varieties (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis) by HPLCESI-MSn and NMR and their quantification by HPLCDAD. J Agric Food Chem 55, 8251–8260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- König A, Cockburn A, Crevel RWR, Debruyne E, Grafstroem R, Hammerling U, Kimber I, Knudsen I, Kuiper HA, Peijnenburg AACM, Penninks AH, Poulsen M, Schauzu M, and Wal JM (2004) Assessment of the safety of foods derived from genetically modified (GM) crops. Food Chem Toxicol 42, 1047–1088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar