Advertisement

GC-MS analysis of the volatile components in dried boxthorn (Lycium chinensis) fruit

  • Joo-Shin Kim
  • Hau Yin ChungEmail author
Food Science/Microbiology Article

Abstract

Analysis of the volatile components in dried boxthorn (Lycium chinensis Miller) fruit was carried out. Extracts were prepared by simultaneous steam distillation and solvent extraction (SDE) apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry qualitatively and quantitatively. One hundred and thirty components including acids (8), alcohols (21), aldehydes (23), alkanes (10), aromatics (5), esters (15), furans (7), ketones (21), miscellaneous compounds (3), naphthalenes (2), phenols (3), pyrazines (2) and terpenes (10) were identified. Some volatile compounds found in the dried boxthorn fruit might account for its major odorous property, particularly at relatively high concentration, e g, hexadecanoic acid, (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid, 3-methyl butanal, 2-methyl butanal and 2-furancarboxaldehyde. However, undesirable compounds were also found in the boxthorn fruit including hexanal, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanol, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, and 2,6,6-trimethyl-1,3-cyclohexadien-1-carboxaldehyde. They were likely produced by lipid or enzymatic oxidation.

Key words

boxthorn fruit gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) volatile components 

Abbreviations

GC-MS

gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

IS

internal standard

SDE

simultaneous steam distillation and extraction

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (1980) In Official methods of analysis, (13th ed.). Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington DC., U.S.A.Google Scholar
  2. Buttery RG and Ling LC (1993) Volatile compounds of tomato fruit and plant parts: relationship and biogenesis. In The Series Analytic: Bioactive Volatile Compounds from Plants, Teranishi R, Bettery RG and Sugisawa H (eds), ACS Symp Ser 525, 23–34. American Chemical Society, Washington DC, U.S.A.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chang CH, Yu TH, Chang CY, and Liu YC (2008) Impacts of extraction methods on volatile constituents of longan flower. J Food Drug Anal 16, 46–52.Google Scholar
  4. Chung HY, Fung PK, and Kim J-S (2005) Aroma impact components in commercial plain sufu. J Agric Food Chem 53, 1684–1691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chung HY, Yung IKS, and Kim J-S (2001) Comparison of volatile components in dried scallops (Chlamys farreri and Patinopecten yessoensis) prepared by boiling and steaming methods. J Agric Food Chem 49, 192–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Jordàn M. Margaría CL, Shaw PE, and Goodner KL (2003) Volatile components and aroma active compounds in aqueous essence and fresh pink guava fruit puree (Psidium guajava L.) by GC-MS and multidimensional GC/GC-O. J Agric Food Chem 51, 1421–1426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kim HP, Lee EJ, Kim YC, Kim J, Kim HK, Park JH, Kim SY, and Kim YC (2002) Zeaxanthin dipalmitate from Lycium chinense fruit reduces experimentally induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. Biol Phar Bull 25, 390–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kim SY, Lee KH, Chang KS, Bock JY, and Jung MY (1997) Taste and flavor compounds in box thorn (Lycium chinense Miller) leaves. Food Chem 58, 297–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lai CI, Yang JS, and Liu MS (1994) Effects of gamma-irradiation on the flavour of dry shitake (Lentinus edodes Sing). J Sci Food Agric 64, 19–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lee GH, Shin Y, and Oh M-J (2008) Aroma-active components of Lycii fructus (kukija). J Food Sci 73, C500-C505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lee YS, Lee GH, Kwon KK, Lee IK, Xue CCI, Li CG, Lee SY, and Shin SW (2005) Anti-inflammatory and antiallergic effects of Lycii fructus extract. Korean J Orient Phys Pathol 19, 1386–1390.Google Scholar
  12. Likens ST and Nickerson GB (1964) Detection of certain hop oil constituents in brewing products. Am Soc Brew Chem Proc 2, 5–13.Google Scholar
  13. Luo Q, Cai Y, Yan J, Sun M, and Croke H. (2004) Hypoglycemic effects and antioxidant activity of fruit extracts from Lycium barbarium. Life Sci 76, 137–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mau JL, Chyau CC, Li JY, and Tseng YH (1997) Flavor compounds in straw mushrooms Volvariella volvacea harvested at different stages of maturity. J Agric Food Chem 45, 4726–4729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Narain N, Hsieh TCY, and Johnson CE (1990) Dynamic headspace concentration and gas chromatography of volatile flavor components in peach. J Food Sci 55, 1303–1307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Noel-Suberville C, Cruz C, Guinberteau J, and Montury M (1996) Correlation between fatty acid content and aromatic compound release in fresh blewit (Lepista nuda). J Agric Food Chem 44, 1180–1183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ong PKC and Acree TE (1998) Gas chromatography/olfactory analysis of lychee (Litchi chinesis Sonn.). J Agric Food Chem 46, 2282–2286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Park WJ, Bock JY, Baik SO, Han SB, and Ju HK (1997) Volatile components of Lycium chinenesis Miller. Korean J Food Nutr 10, 1–5.Google Scholar
  19. Peng Y, Ma C, LI Y, Leung Kelvin SY, Jiang ZH, and Zhao Z (2005) Quantification of zeaxanthin dipalmitate and total carotenoids in Lycium fruits (Fructus Lycii). Plant Foods Human Nutr 60, 161–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rapior S, Marion C, Pelissier Y Y, and Bessiere JM (1997) Volatile composition of fourteen species of fresh wild mushrooms (Boletales). J Essent Oil Res 9, 231–234.Google Scholar
  21. Ren B, Ma Y, Sheng Y, and Gai B (1995) Protective action of Lycium barbarum L. (LbL) and betaine on lipid peroxidation of erythrocyte membrane induced by H2O2. China J Clin Mater Med 20, 303–304.Google Scholar
  22. Ryu SN and Kim SM (1998) Volatile oil composition of boxthorn (Lycium chinensis M.) leaves. Korean J Crop Sci 43, 189–193.Google Scholar
  23. Sannai A, Fujimori T, and Kato K (1983) Neutral volatile components of “Kukoshi” (Lycium chinense M.). Agric Biol Chem 47, 2397–2399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Springett MB, Williams BM, and Barnes RJ (1994) The effect of packaging conditions and storage time on the volatile composition of Assam black tea leaf. Food Chem 49, 393–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Van den Dool H and Kratz PD (1963) A generation of the retention index system including linear temperature programmed gas liquid partition chromatography. J Chromatogr 2, 463–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wang C, Chin CK, Ho CT, Hwang CF, Polashock JJ, and Martin CE (1996) Changes of fatty acids and fatty acid-derived flavor compounds by expressing the yeast delta-9 desaturage gene in tomato. J Agric Food Chem 44, 3399–3402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wang JH, Wang HZ, Zhang M, and Zhang SH (2002a) Anti-aging function of polysaccharides from Fructus lycii. Acta Nutrimenta Sin 24, 189–191, 194.Google Scholar
  28. Wang JH, Wang HZ, Zhang M, and Zhang SH (2002b). Effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP3) on lipid peroxidation in mice. Chin J Vet Sci 22, 267–268.Google Scholar
  29. Yi SD, Lee MH, Son HJ, Bock JY, Sung CK, Oh MJ, and Kim CH (1996) Changes of chemical connstitutents in extract of Lycii frctus by various heat treatment. Agri Chem Biotech 39, 268–273.Google Scholar
  30. Zhang KY, Leung HW, Yeung HW, and Wong RN (2001) Differentiation of Lycium barbarum from its related Lycium species using random amplified polymorphic DNA. Planta Med 67, 379–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kwangil Synthesis Plant Co. Ltd.SeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Biology, Food and Nutritional Sciences ProgrammeThe Chinese University of Hong Kong, N. T.Hong Kong

Personalised recommendations