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Repeated measures regression mixture models

  • Minjung KimEmail author
  • M. Lee Van HornEmail author
  • Thomas Jaki
  • Jeroen Vermunt
  • Daniel Feaster
  • Kenneth L. Lichstein
  • Daniel J. Taylor
  • Brant W. Riedel
  • Andrew J. Bush
Article

Abstract

Regression mixture models are one increasingly utilized approach for developing theories about and exploring the heterogeneity of effects. In this study we aimed to extend the current use of regression mixtures to a repeated regression mixture method when repeated measures, such as diary-type and experience-sampling method, data are available. We hypothesized that additional information borrowed from the repeated measures would improve the model performance, in terms of class enumeration and accuracy of the parameter estimates. We specifically compared three types of model specifications in regression mixtures: (a) traditional single-outcome model; (b) repeated measures models with three, five, and seven measures; and (c) a single-outcome model with the average of seven repeated measures. The results showed that the repeated measures regression mixture models substantially outperformed the traditional and average single-outcome models in class enumeration, with less bias in the parameter estimates. For sample size, whereas prior recommendations have suggested that regression mixtures require samples of well over 1,000 participants, even for classes at a large distance from each other (classes with regression weights of .20 vs. .70), the present repeated measures regression mixture models allow for samples as low as 200 participants with an increased number (i.e., seven) of repeated measures. We also demonstrate an application of the proposed repeated measures approach using data from the Sleep Research Project. Implications and limitations of the study are discussed.

Keywords

Regression mixture models Sample size Repeated measures Heterogeneous effects 

Notes

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Copyright information

© The Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Minjung Kim
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. Lee Van Horn
    • 2
    Email author
  • Thomas Jaki
    • 3
  • Jeroen Vermunt
    • 4
  • Daniel Feaster
    • 5
  • Kenneth L. Lichstein
    • 6
  • Daniel J. Taylor
    • 7
  • Brant W. Riedel
    • 8
  • Andrew J. Bush
    • 9
  1. 1.Department of Educational StudiesOhio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  2. 2.Department of Individual, Family, and Community EducationUniversity of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA
  3. 3.Department of Mathematics and StatisticsLancaster UniversityLancasterUK
  4. 4.Department of Methodology and StatisticsTilburg UniversityTilburgThe Netherlands
  5. 5.Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of BiostatisticsUniversity of MiamiMiamiUSA
  6. 6.Department of PsychologyUniversity of AlabamaTuscaloosaUSA
  7. 7.Department of PsychologyUniversity of North TexasDentonUSA
  8. 8.Shelby County SchoolsMemphisUSA
  9. 9.Department of Preventive MedicineUniversity of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA

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