Behavior Research Methods

, Volume 47, Issue 3, pp 902–910 | Cite as

Normative data for the 56 categories of Battig and Montague (1969) in Spanish

  • Alejandra Marful
  • Emiliano Díez
  • Angel Fernandez
Article
  • 291 Downloads

Abstract

Knowledge of specific characteristics of verbal material is imperative in cognitive research, and this need calls for periodical updating of normative data. With this aim, and considering that the most recent Spanish-language category norms for adults date back to more than 30 years ago, and that they do not include some very common categories, a new normative study was conducted. In this study, production data for exemplars in the 56 categories of Battig and Montague (Journal of Experimental Psychology, 80, 1-46, 1969) were collected from a pool of 284 young adults who were native speakers of Spanish using an exemplar production task. With the goal of providing a useful tool for cognitive research to be conducted with Spanish-speaking samples, indices of frequency, rank, and lexical availability for the exemplars of each category are provided in a computerized database. The norms described are available for downloading as supplemental material with this article.

Keywords

Spanish category norms Category exemplars College students 

Supplementary material

13428_2014_513_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (3.1 mb)
ESM 1(XLSX 3164 kb)

References

  1. Abel, M., & Bauml, K.-H. T. (2013). Sleep can eliminate list-method directed forgetting. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39, 946–952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alonso, M. A., Fernandez, A., & Díez, E. (2011). Oral frequency norms for 67,979 Spanish words. Behavior Research Methods, 43, 449–458.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alonso, M. A., Fernandez, A., & Díez, E. (in press). Subjective Age-of-Acquisition norms for 7,039 Spanish words. Behavior Research Methods.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, M. C., Bjork, R. A., & Bjork, E. L. (1994). Remembering can cause forgetting: Retrieval dynamics in long-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20, 1063–1087.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Barsalou, L. W. (1985). Ideals, central tendency, and frequency of instantiation as determinants of graded structure in categories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 11, 629–654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Battig, W. F., & Montague, W. E. (1969). Category norms for verbal items in 56 categories: A replication and extension of the Connecticut category norms. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 80, 1–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boccardi, M., & Cappa, S. F. (1997). Valori normative di produzione categoriale per la lingua italiana [Normative values of categorical production for the Italian language]. Giornale Italiano di Psicologia, 24, 425–436.Google Scholar
  8. Brown, W. P., & Davies, G. M. (1976). Studies in word listing: Testing for group differences in category norms. Irish Journal of Psychology, 3, 87–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bueno, S., & Megherbi, H. (2009). French categorization norms for 70 semantic categories and comparison with Van Overschelde et al.’s (2004) English norms. Behavior Research Methods, 41, 1018–1028.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Carneiro, P., Albuquerque, P., & Fernandez, A. (2008). Portuguese category norms for children. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 177–182.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Carneiro, P., Albuquerque, P., & Fernandez, A. (2009). Opposite developmental trends for false recognition of basic and superordinate names. Memory, 17, 411–427.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Casey, P. J., & Heath, R. A. (1988). Category norms for Australians. Australian Journal of Psychology, 40, 323–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cohen, B. H., Bousfield, W. A., & Whitmarsh, G. A. (1957). Cultural norms for verbal items in 43 categories. Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut.Google Scholar
  14. Cuetos, F., Ellis, A. W., & Alvarez, B. (1999). Naming times for the Snodgrass and Vanderwart pictures in Spanish. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 31, 650–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Díez, E., Fernandez, A., & Alonso, M. A. (2014). NIPE: Normas e índices de interés en Psicología Experimental. Accesible at http://campus.usal.es/~gimc/nipe/
  16. Duchon, A., Perea, M., Sebastián-Gallés, N., Martí, A., & Carreiras, M. (2013). EsPal: One-stop shopping for Spanish word properties. Behavior Research Methods, 45, 1246–1258.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Goikoetxea, E. (2000). Frecuencia de producción de las respuestas a 52 categorías verbales en niños de primaria [Frequency of response production to 52 verbal categories in school children]. Psicológica, 21, 61–89.Google Scholar
  18. Guasch, M., Boada, R., Ferré, P., & Sánchez-Casas, R. (2013). NIM: A Web-based Swiss army knife to select stimuli for psycholinguistic studies. Behavior Research Methods, 45, 765–771.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Henry, J. D., Crawford, J. R., & Phillips, L. H. (2004). Verbal fluency performance in dementia of the Alzheimer’s type: A meta-analysis. Neuropsychologia, 42, 1212–1222.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Hernández-Muñoz, N., Izura, C., & Ellis, A. W. (2006). Cognitive aspects of lexical availability. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 18, 730–755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Howard, D. V. (1980). Category norms: A comparison of Battig and Montague (1969) norms with the responses of adults between the ages of 20 and 80. Journal of Gerontology, 35, 225–231.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Izura, C., Hernández-Muñoz, N., & Ellis, A. W. (2005). Category norms for 500 Spanish words in five semantic categories. Behavior Research Methods, 37, 385–397.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Jenkins, J. J., & Palermo, D. S. (1965). Further data on changes in word association norms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1, 303–309.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. López-Chávez, J., & Strassburguer-Frías, C. (2000). El diseño de una fórmula matemática para obtener un índice de disponibilidad léxica confiable [A mathematical equation designed to obtain a reliable lexical availability index]. Anuario de Letras, 38, 227–251.Google Scholar
  25. Macizo, P., Bajo, M. T., & Paolieri, D. (2012). Language switching and language competition. Second Language Research, 28, 131–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Marshall, C. E., & Parr, W. V. (1996). New Zealand norms for a subset of Battig and Montague's (1969) categories. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 25, 24–29.Google Scholar
  27. Moreno-Martínez, F. J., & Montoro, P. R. (2012). An ecological alternative to Snodgrass & Vanderwart: 360 high quality colour images with norms for seven psycholinguistic variables. PLoS ONE, 7(5), e37527.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Pascual, J., & Musitu, G. (1980). Normas categoriales [Categorical norms]. Psicológica, 1, 157–174.Google Scholar
  29. Pinto, A. C. (1992). Medidas de categorização: Frequência de produção e de tipicidade [Measures of categorization: Production frequency and typicality]. Jornal de Psicologia, 10, 10–15.Google Scholar
  30. Price, H. L., & Connolly, D. A. (2006). BatMon II: Children’s category norms for 33 categories. Behavior Research Methods, 38, 529–531.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Rodríguez-Ferreiro, J., Cuetos, F., Monsalve, A., Martínez, C., Pérez, A. J., & Venneri, A. E. (2012). Establishing the relationship between cortical atrophy and semantic deficits in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment patients through voxel-based morphometry. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 25, 139–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ruts, W., De Deyne, S., Ameel, E., Vanpaemel, W., Verbeemen, T., & Storms, G. (2004). Dutch norm data for 13 semantic categories and 338 exemplars. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36, 506–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sanfeliu, M. C., & Fernandez, A. (1996). A set of 254 Snodgrass-Vanderwart pictures standardized for Spanish: Norms for name agreement, image agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 28, 537–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Saunders, J., Fernandes, M., & Kosnes, L. (2009). Retrieval-induced forgetting and mental imagery. Memory & Cognition, 37, 819–828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sebastián, N., Martí, M. A., Carreiras, M. F., & Cuetos, F. (2000). LEXESP, léxico informatizado del español. Barcelona, Spain: Ediciones de la Universitat de Barcelona.Google Scholar
  36. Smith, S. M., Ward, T. B., Tindell, D. R., Sifonis, C. M., & Wilkenfeld, M. J. (2000). Effects of category structure on created memories. Memory & Cognition, 28, 386–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Snodgrass, J. G., & Vanderwart, M. (1980). A standardized set of 260 pictures: Norms for name agreement, image agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 6, 174–215.Google Scholar
  38. Soto, P., Sebastián, M. V., García, E., & del Amo, T. (1982). Categorización y datos normativos en España [Categorization and normative data in Spain]. Madrid: Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.Google Scholar
  39. Soto, P., Sebastián, M. V., García, E., & del Amo, T. (1994). Las categorías y sus normas en castellano [Categories and their norms in Spanish]. Madrid: Visor.Google Scholar
  40. Van Overschelde, J. P., Rawson, K. A., & Dunlosky, J. (2004). Category norms: An updated and expanded version of the Battig and Montague (1969) norms. Journal of Memory and Language, 50, 289–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yoon, C., Feinberg, F., Hu, P., Gutchess, A. H., Hedden, T., Chen, H. Y. M., ... Park, D. C. (2004). Category norms as a function of culture and age: Comparisons of item responses to 105 categories by American and Chinese adults. Psychology and Aging, 19, 379–393.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Zacks, R. T., Radvansky, G., & Hasher, L. (1996). Studies of directed forgetting in older adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22, 143–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alejandra Marful
    • 1
  • Emiliano Díez
    • 2
  • Angel Fernandez
    • 2
  1. 1.Departamento de PsicologíaUniversidad de JaénJaénSpain
  2. 2.INICO, Universidad de SalamancaSalamancaSpain

Personalised recommendations