Behavior Research Methods

, Volume 46, Issue 3, pp 872–886 | Cite as

PhonItalia: a phonological lexicon for Italian

Article

Abstract

In this article, we present the first open-access lexical database that provides phonological representations for 120,000 Italian word forms. Each of these also includes syllable boundaries and stress markings and a comprehensive range of lexical statistics. Using data derived from this lexicon, we have also generated a set of derived databases and provided estimates of positional frequency use for Italian phonemes, syllables, syllable onsets and codas, and character and phoneme bigrams. These databases are freely available from phonitalia.org. This article describes the methods, content, and summarizing statistics for these databases. In a first application of this database, we also demonstrate how the distribution of phonological substitution errors made by Italian aphasic patients is related to phoneme frequency.

Keywords

Phonological lexicon Lexical statistics Aphasic errors 

References

  1. Aichert, I., & Ziegler, W. (2004). Syllable frequency and syllable structure in apraxia of speech. Brain and Language, 88(1), 148–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baayen, R. H., Piepenbrock, R., & van Rijn, H. (1993). The Celex lexical database (CD-ROM). University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia: Linguistic Data Consortium.Google Scholar
  3. Balota, D. A., Yap, M. J., Cortese, M. J., Hutchison, K. A., Kessler, B., Loftis, B., ... Treiman, R. (2007). The English Lexicon Project. Behavior Research Methods, 39, 445–459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barca, L., Burani, C., & Arduino, L. S. (2002). Word naming times and psycholinguistic norms for Italian nouns. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 34(3), 424–434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bertinetto P. M., Burani C., Laudanna A., Marconi L., Ratti D., Rolando C., & Thornton A. M. (2005). Corpus e Lessico di Frequenza dell'Italiano Scritto (CoLFIS). http://linguistica.sns.it/CoLFIS/CoLFIS_home.htm
  6. Bird, H., Franklin, S., & Howard, D. (2001). Age of acquisition and imageability ratings for a large set of words, including verbs and function words. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 33, 73–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blumstein, S. (1973). Some phonological implications of aphasic speech. In H. Goodglass & S. Blumstein (Eds.), Psycholinguistics and aphasia (pp. 123–236). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Blumstein, S. E. (1978). Segment structure and the syllable in aphasia. In A. Bell & J. B. Hooper (Eds.), Syllables and segments (pp. 189–200). Holland: North-Holland Pub. Co.Google Scholar
  9. Burani, C., Barca, L., & Ellis, A. W. (2006). Orthographic complexity and word naming in Italian: Some words are more transparent than others. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 13, 346–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Coltheart, M. (1981). The MRC Psycholinguistic database. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 33A, 497–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Coltheart, M., Davelaar, E., Jonasson, J. T., & Besner, D. (1977). Access to the internal lexicon. In S. Dornic (Ed.), Attention and performance (Vol. VI, pp. 535–555). New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  12. Content, A., Mousty, P., & Radeau, M. (1990). Brulex. Une base de données lexicales informatisée pour le français écrit et parlé. L'Année Psychologique, 90, 551–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cosi, P., Gretter, R., & Tesser, F. (2000). Festival parla italiano. In Proceedings of GFS2000, XI Giornate del Gruppo di Fonetica Sperimentale, Padova, 29th November to 1st December.Google Scholar
  14. de Calmès, M., & Pérennou, G. (1998). BDLEX : a Lexicon for Spoken and Written French. In: 1st International Conference on Langage Resources & Evaluation (LREC1998), Grenade. ELRA, Paris, p.1129-1136, 28-30 mai 1998.Google Scholar
  15. De Mauro, T., Mancini, F., Vedovelli, M., & Voghera, M. (1993). Lessico di frequenza dell’italiano parlato [frequency lexicon of spoken Italian]. Milan: ESTALIBRI.Google Scholar
  16. Ferrand, L., New, B., Brysbaert, M., Keuleers, E., Bonin, P., Méot, A., ... Pallier, C. (2010). The French Lexicon Project: Lexical decision data for 38,840 French words and 38,840 pseudowords. Behavior Research Methods, 42, 488–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Galluzzi, C., Bureca, I., Guariglia, C., & Romani, C. (2013). Phonological simplifications and the differential diagnosis of apraxia of speech. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  18. Gilhooly, K. J., & Logie, R. H. (1980). Age_of_acquisition, imagery, concreteness, familiarity, and ambiguity measures for 1,944 words. Behaviour Research Methods and Instrumentation, 12, 395–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Goldrick, M., & Rapp, B. (2007). Lexical and post-lexical phonological representations in spoken production. Cognition, 102, 219–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Goslin, J., & Frauenfelder, U. H. (2001). A comparison of theoretical and human syllabification. Language and Speech, 44(4), 409–436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Keuleers, E., Diependaele, K., & Brysbaert, M. (2010). Practice effects in large-scale visual word recognition studies: A lexical decision study on 14,000 Dutch mono- and disyllabic words and nonwords. Frontiers in Psychology, 1, 174. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2010.00174 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Keuleers, E., Lacey, P., Rastle, K., & Brysbaert, M. (2012). The British Lexicon Project: Lexical decision data for 28,730 monosyllabic and disyllabic English words. Behavioral Research Methods, 44(1), 287–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kučera, H., & Francis, W. N. (1967). Computational analysis of present-day American English. Providence, RI: Brown University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Laganaro, M. (2008). Is there a syllable frequency effect in aphasia or in apraxia of speech or both? Aphasiology, 22(11), 1191–1200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Laporte, E. (1993). Phonetic syllables in French: Combinations, structure, and formal definitions. Acta Linguistica Hungarica, 41, 175–189.Google Scholar
  26. Laudanna, A., Thornton, A. M., Brown, G., Burani, C., & Marconi, L. (1995). Un corpus dell'italiano scritto contemporaneo dalla parte del ricevente. In S. Bolasco, L. Lebart e A. Salem (a cura di), III Giornate internazionali di Analisi Statistica dei Dati Testuali. Volume I, pp. 103–109. Roma: Cisu.Google Scholar
  27. MacNeilage, P. F. (1982). Speech production mechanisms in aphasia. In S. Grillner, B. Lindblom, J. Lubker, & A. Persson (Eds.), Speech motor control (pp. 43–60). New York: Pergamon Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Maraschio, N. (1993). Grafia e ortografia: Evoluzione e codificazione. In L. Serianni & P. Trifone (Eds.), Storia della lingua italiana (Vol. I, pp. 139–227). Turin: Giulio Einaudi Editore.Google Scholar
  29. Maturi, P. (2009). I suoni delle lingue, i suoni dell’italiano. Introduzione alla fonetica. Bologna: Il Mulino.Google Scholar
  30. New, B., Pallier, C., Brysbaert, M., & Ferrand, L. (2004). Lexique 2: A new French lexical database. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36(3), 516–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. New, B., Pallier, C., Ferrand, L., & Matos, R. (2001). Une base de données lexicales du français contemporain sur internet: LEXIQUE. L'Année Pschologique, 101, 447–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pérennou, G., & De Calmes, M. (1987). BDLEX Base de données lexicales du français écrit et parlé. Volume 1, Lexique général. : Travaux du Laboratoire CERFIA.Google Scholar
  33. Protopapas, A., Tzakosta, M., Chalamandaris, A., & Tsiakoulis, P. (2012). IPLR: An online resource for Greek word-level and sublexical information. Language Resources & Evaluation, 46, 449–459. doi:10.1007/s10579-010-9130-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Robson, J., Pring, T., Marshall, J., & Chiat, S. (2003). Phoneme frequency effects in jargon aphasia: A phonological investigation of nonword errors. Brain and Language, 85, 109–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Romani, C., & Galluzzi, C. (2005). Effects of syllabic complexity in predicting accuracy of repetition and direction of errors in patients with articulatory and phonological difficulties. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 22(7), 817–850.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Romani, C., Galluzzi, C., Bureca, I., & Olson, A. (2011). Effects of syllable structure in aphasic errors: Implications for a new model of speech production. Cognitive Psychology, 62, 151–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Romani, C., Galluzzi, C., & Goslin, J. (2013). A comparative study of phoneme frequency of use, age of acquisition and phonological complexity in Italian. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  38. Romani, C., Galluzzi, C., & Olson, A. (2011). Phonological lexical activation: A lexical component or an output buffer? Evidence from aphasic errors. Cortex, 47, 217–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Romani, C., Granà, A., & Semenza, C. (1996). More errors on vowels than on consonants: An unusual case of conduction aphasia. Brain and Language, 55(1), 144–146.Google Scholar
  40. Sebastián-Gallés, N., Martí, M. A., Carreiras, M., & Cuetos, F. (2000). LEXESP: Una base de datos informatizada del español. Barcelona: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universitat de Barcelona.Google Scholar
  41. Staiger, A., & Ziegler, W. (2008). Syllable frequency and syllable structure in the spontaneous speech production of patients with apraxia of speech. Aphasiology, 22, 1201–1215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Stella, V., & Job, R. (2001). Le sillabe PD/DPSS. Una base di dati sulla frequenza sillabicadell’italiano scritto. Giornale Italiano di Psicologia, 28, 633–639.Google Scholar
  43. Thorndike, E. L., & Lorge, I. (1944). A teacher's word book of 30.000 words. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Wilshire, C. E., & Nespoulous, J. L. (2003). Syllables as units in speech production: Data from aphasia. Brain and Language, 84(3), 424–447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wilson, M. D. (1988). The MRC Psycholinguistic database: Machine readable dictionary, version 2. Behavioural Research Methods, Instruments and Computers, 20(1), 6–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeremy Goslin
    • 1
  • Claudia Galluzzi
    • 2
  • Cristina Romani
    • 3
  1. 1.School of PsychologyUniversity of PlymouthPlymouthUK
  2. 2.Fondazione Santa Lucia, i.r.c.s.s.RomeItaly
  3. 3.School of Life and Health SciencesAston UniversityBirminghamUK

Personalised recommendations