Behavior Research Methods

, Volume 46, Issue 2, pp 331–345 | Cite as

Meta-analyzing dependent correlations: An SPSS macro and an R script

  • Shu Fai CheungEmail author
  • Darius K.-S. Chan


The presence of dependent correlation is a common problem in meta-analysis. Cheung and Chan (2004, 2008) have shown that samplewise-adjusted procedures perform better than the more commonly adopted simple within-sample mean procedures. However, samplewise-adjusted procedures have rarely been applied in meta-analytic reviews, probably due to the lack of suitable ready-to-use programs. In this article, we compare the samplewise-adjusted procedures with existing procedures to handle dependent effect sizes, and present the samplewise-adjusted procedures in a way that will make them more accessible to researchers conducting meta-analysis. We also introduce two tools, an SPSS macro and an R script, that researchers can apply to their meta-analyses; these tools are compatible with existing meta-analysis software packages.


Meta-analysis Dependent effect sizes 


Author note

This research was supported by Grant No. MYRG047(Y1-L1)-FSH11-CSF, a Multi-Year Research Grant from the University of Macau.

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Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MacauMacao SARChina
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyChinese University of Hong KongHong Kong SARChina
  3. 3.Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social SciencesUniversity of MacauMacao SARChina

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