Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 701–709 | Cite as

The noisy encoding of disparity model of the McGurk effect

  • John F. MagnottiEmail author
  • Michael S. BeauchampEmail author
Brief Report


In the McGurk effect, incongruent auditory and visual syllables are perceived as a third, completely different syllable. This striking illusion has become a popular assay of multisensory integration for individuals and clinical populations. However, there is enormous variability in how often the illusion is evoked by different stimuli and how often the illusion is perceived by different individuals. Most studies of the McGurk effect have used only one stimulus, making it impossible to separate stimulus and individual differences. We created a probabilistic model to separately estimate stimulus and individual differences in behavioral data from 165 individuals viewing up to 14 different McGurk stimuli. The noisy encoding of disparity (NED) model characterizes stimuli by their audiovisual disparity and characterizes individuals by how noisily they encode the stimulus disparity and by their disparity threshold for perceiving the illusion. The model accurately described perception of the McGurk effect in our sample, suggesting that differences between individuals are stable across stimulus differences. The most important benefit of the NED model is that it provides a method to compare multisensory integration across individuals and groups without the confound of stimulus differences. An added benefit is the ability to predict frequency of the McGurk effect for stimuli never before seen by an individual.


McGurk effect Individual differences Speech perception Multisensory integration 



This research was supported by NIH R01NS065395 to MSB. We thank Wei Ji Ma and xaq pitkow for helpful comments.


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Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neurobiology & AnatomyUniversity of Texas Medical School at HoustonHoustonUSA

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