Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 861–883 | Cite as

Working memory and second language comprehension and production: A meta-analysis

  • Jared A. Linck
  • Peter Osthus
  • Joel T. Koeth
  • Michael F. Bunting
Theoretical Review

Abstract

Although working memory (WM) figures centrally in many theories of second language (L2) proficiency development and processing, some have argued that the importance of WM is overstated (e.g., Juffs, Transactions of the Philological Society, 102, 199–225, 2004). Despite many studies over the past two decades, the literature lacks a quantitative synthesis of the extant results. In this article, we report a meta-analysis of data from 79 samples involving 3,707 participants providing 748 effect sizes. The results indicate that WM is positively associated with both L2 processing and proficiency outcomes, with an estimated population effect size (ρ) of .255. In additional analyses, we assessed whether the WM–criterion relationship was modulated by potential covariates identified in the literature search (i.e., participant characteristics, WM measure features, criterion measure factors, and publication status). The results of the covariate analyses indicated larger effect sizes for the executive control (vs. storage) component of WM, and for verbal (vs. nonverbal) measures of WM. Minimal publication bias was detected, suggesting that WM has a robust, positive relationship with L2 outcomes. We discuss the implications of these results for models of WM and theories of L2 processing and L2 proficiency development.

Keywords

Working memory L2 processing L2 comprehension L2 production Second language acquisition Meta-analysis 

Supplementary material

13423_2013_565_MOESM1_ESM.txt (21 kb)
ESM 1(TXT 20.7 kb)

References

*studies selected for inclusion in the meta-analysis

  1. *Abu-Rabia, S. (2001). Testing the interdependence hypothesis among native adult bilingual Russian-English students. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 30, 437–455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abutalebi, J., & Green, D. (2008). Control mechanisms in bilingual language production: Neural evidence from language switching studies. Language and Cognitive Processes, 23, 557–582.Google Scholar
  3. *Ahmadian, M. J. (2012). The relationship between working memory capacity and L2 oral performance under task-based careful online planning condition. TESOL Quarterly, 46, 165–175.Google Scholar
  4. *Akamatsu, N. (2008). The effects of training on automatization of word recognition in English as a foreign language. Applied Psycholinguistics, 29, 175–193.Google Scholar
  5. *Alptekin, C., & Erçetin, G. (2009). Assessing the relationship of working memory to L2 reading: Does the nature of comprehension process and reading span task make a difference. System, 37, 627–639.Google Scholar
  6. *Alptekin, C., & Erçetin, G. (2010). The role of L1 and L2 working memory in literal and inferential comprehension in L2 reading. Journal of Research in Reading, 33, 206–219.Google Scholar
  7. *Alptekin, C., & Erçetin, G. (2012). Effects of working memory capacity and content familiarity on literal and inferential comprehension in L2 reading. TESOL Quarterly, 45, 235–266.Google Scholar
  8. *Andringa, S., Olsthoorn, N., van Beuningen, C., Schoonen, R., & Hulstijn, J. (2012). Determinants of success in native and non-native listening comprehension: An individual differences approach. Language Learning, 62(Suppl. 2), 49–78.Google Scholar
  9. Ashcraft, M. H., & Krause, J. A. (2007). Working memory, math performance, and math anxiety. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 243–248. doi:10.3758/BF03194059 Google Scholar
  10. Atkins, P. W. B., & Baddeley, A. D. (1998). Working memory and distributed vocabulary learning. Applied Psycholinguistics, 19, 537–552.Google Scholar
  11. Baddeley, A. (1986). Working memory. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  12. Baddeley, A. (2000). The episodic buffer: A new component of working memory? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 417–423. doi:10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01538-2 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Baddeley, A. (2007). Working memory, thought, and action. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. J. (1974). Working memory. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (Vol. 8, pp. 47–89). New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  15. Baddeley, A. D., & Logie, R. H. (1999). Working memory: The multiple-component model. In A. Miyake & P. Shah (Eds.), Models of working memory: Mechanisms of active maintenance and executive control (pp. 28–61). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  16. *Bergsleithner, J. M. (2007). Working memory capacity, noticing, and L2 speech production (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianapólis, Brasil.Google Scholar
  17. Bialystok, E. (2010). Bilingualism. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 1, 559–572.Google Scholar
  18. Caplan, D., & Waters, G. S. (1999). Verbal working memory and sentence comprehension. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22, 77–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Carroll, J. B. (1985). Second-language abilities. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Human abilities: An information-processing approach (pp. 83–103). New York, NY: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  20. Cheung, H. (1996). Nonword span as a unique predictor of second-language vocabulary learning. Developmental Psychology, 32, 867–873.Google Scholar
  21. Cheung, S. F., & Chan, D. K.-S. (2004). Dependent effect sizes in meta-analysis: Incorporating the degree of interdependence. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 780–791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. *Christoffels, I. K., De Groot, A. M. B., & Waldorp, L. J. (2003). Basic skills in a complex task: A graphical model relating memory and lexical retrieval to simultaneous interpreting. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 6, 201–211.Google Scholar
  23. *Chun, D. M., & Payne, J. S. (2004). What makes students click: Working memory and look-up behavior. System, 32, 481–503.Google Scholar
  24. Conway, A. R. A., Cowan, N., Bunting, M. F., Therriault, D., & Minkoff, S. (2002). A latent variable analysis of working memory capacity, short-term memory capacity, processing speed, and general fluid intelligence. Intelligence, 30, 163–184.Google Scholar
  25. Conway, A. R. A., Jarrold, C., Kane, M. J., Miyake, A., & Towse, J. N. (Eds.). (2007). Variation in working memory. Oxford: New York, NY.Google Scholar
  26. Conway, A. R. A., Kane, M. J., Bunting, M. F., Hambrick, D. Z., Wilhelm, O., & Engle, R. W. (2005). Working memory span tasks: A methodological review and user’s guide. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12, 769–786. doi:10.3758/BF03196772 Google Scholar
  27. Costa, A., & Santesteban, M. (2004). Lexical access in bilingual speech production: Evidence from language switching in highly proficient bilinguals and L2 learners. Journal of Memory and Language, 50, 491–511.Google Scholar
  28. *Coughlin, C. E., & Tremblay, A. (2013). Proficiency and working memory based explanations for nonnative speakers’ sensitivity to agreement in sentence processing. Applied Psycholinguistics, 34, 615–646. doi:10.1017/S0142716411000890 Google Scholar
  29. Cowan, N. (1995). Attention and memory: An integrated framework (Oxford Psychology Series, No. 26). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Cowan, N. (2001). The magical number 4 in short-term memory: A reconsideration of mental storage capacity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24, 87–114. doi:10.1017/S0140525X01003922. disc. 114–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cowan, N. (2005). Working memory capacity. Hove, UK: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  32. Daneman, M., & Hannon, B. (2007). What do working memory span tasks like reading span really measure? In N. Osaka, R. H. Logie, & M. D’Esposito (Eds.), The cognitive neuroscience of working memory (pp. 21–42). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Daneman, M., & Merikle, P. M. (1996). Working memory and language comprehension: A meta-analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 3, 422–433. doi:10.3758/BF03214546 Google Scholar
  34. DeCoster, J. (2009). Meta-analysis notes. Retrieved September 6, 2012, from www.stat-help.com/notes.html
  35. DeKeyser, R., & Koeth, J. (2011). Cognitive aptitudes for L2 learning. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (Vol. II, pp. 395–406). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  36. Dijkstra, T. (2005). Bilingual visual word recognition and lexical access. In J. F. Kroll & A. M. B. De Groot (Eds.), Handbook of bilingualism: Psycholinguistic approaches (pp. 179–201). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Dörnyei, Z., & Skehan, P. (2003). Individual differences in second language learning. In C. J. Doughty & M. H. Long (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 589–630). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  38. Engle, R. W. (2001). What is working memory capacity? In H. L. Roediger III, J. S. Nairne, I. Neath, & A. M. Suprenant (Eds.), The nature of remembering: Essays in honor of Robert G. Crowder (pp. 297–314). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  39. Engle, R. W. (2002). Working memory capacity as executive attention. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 19–23. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.00160 Google Scholar
  40. Engle, R. W., Carullo, J. J., & Collins, K. W. (1991). Individual differences in working memory for comprehension and following directions. Journal of Educational Research, 84, 253–262.Google Scholar
  41. Engle, R. W., & Kane, M. J. (2004). Executive attention, working memory capacity, and a two-factor theory of cognitive control. In B. H. Ross (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 44, pp. 145–199). New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  42. Engle, R. W., Kane, M. J., & Tuholski, S. W. (1999a). Individual differences in working memory capacity and what they tell us about controlled attention, general fluid intelligence, and functions of the prefrontal cortex. In A. Miyake & P. Shah (Eds.), Models of working memory: Mechanisms of active maintenance and executive control (pp. 102–134). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Engle, R. W., Tuholski, S. W., Laughlin, J. E., & Conway, A. R. A. (1999b). Working memory, short-term memory, and general fluid intelligence: A latent-variable approach. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 128, 309–331. doi:10.1037/0096-3445.128.3.309 Google Scholar
  44. *Erçetin, G., & Alptekin, C. (2013). The explicit/implicit knowledge distinction and working memory: Implications for second-language reading comprehension. Applied Psycholinguistics, 34, 727–753. doi:10.1017/s0142716411000932 Google Scholar
  45. Fedorenko, E., Gibson, E., & Rohde, D. (2007). The nature of working memory in linguistic, arithmetic and spatial integration processes. Journal of Memory and Language, 56, 246–269. doi:10.1016/j.jml.2006.06.007 Google Scholar
  46. *Fehringer, C., & Fry, C. (2007a). Frills, furbelows and activated memory: syntactically optional elements in the spontaneous language production of bilingual speakers. Language Sciences, 29, 497–511.Google Scholar
  47. *Fehringer, C., & Fry, C. (2007b). Hesitation phenomena in the language production of bilingual speakers: The role of working memory. Folia Linguistica, 41, 37–72.Google Scholar
  48. *Finardi, K. R. (2008). Effects of task repetition on L2 oral performance. Trabalhos em Lingüística Aplicada, 47, 31–43.Google Scholar
  49. *Finardi, K. R., & Silveira, R. (2011). Working memory capacity in the production and acquisition of a syntactic rule in L2 speech. Revista Brasileira de Linguística Aplicada, 11, 199–221.Google Scholar
  50. *Finardi, K. R. and Weissheimer, J. (2008). On the Relationship between working memory capacity and L2 speech development. Revista Signótica, 20, 365–389.Google Scholar
  51. *Fontanini, I., & Tomitch, L. M. B. (2009). Working memory capacity and L2 university students’ comprehension of linear texts and hypertexts. International Journal of English Studies, 9, 1–18.Google Scholar
  52. *Foote, R. (2011). Integrated knowledge of agreement in early and late English–Spanish bilinguals. Applied Psycholinguistics, 32, 187–220.Google Scholar
  53. *Fortkamp, M. B. M. (1998). Measures of working memory capacity and L2 oral fluency. Ilha do Desterro, 35, 201–238.Google Scholar
  54. *Fortkamp, M. B. M. (1999). Working memory capacity and aspects of L2 speech production. Communication and Cognition, 32, 259–296.Google Scholar
  55. Fortkamp, M. B. M., & Bergsleithner, J. M. (2007). Relationship among individual differences in working memory capacity, noticing, and L2 speech production. Signo, 32, 40–53.Google Scholar
  56. *Gass, S., & Lee, J. (2011). Working memory capacity, Stroop interference, and proficiency in a second language. In M. Schmid & W. Lowie (Eds.), From structure to chaos: Twenty years of modeling bilingualism (pp. 59–84). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Benjamins.Google Scholar
  57. Gathercole, S. E., Willis, C. S., Emslie, H., & Baddeley, A. D. (1992). Phonological memory and vocabulary development during the early school years: A longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 28, 887–898.Google Scholar
  58. *Gilabert, R., & Muñoz, C. (2010). Differences in attainment and performance in a foreign language: The role of working memory capacity. International Journal of English Studies, 10, 19–42.Google Scholar
  59. Gold, B. T., Kim, C., Johnson, N. F., Kryscio, R. J., & Smith, C. D. (2013). Lifelong bilingualism maintains neural efficiency for cognitive control in aging. Journal of Neuroscience, 33, 387–396. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3837-12.2013 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Goo, J. (2010). Working memory and reactivity. Language Learning, 60, 712–752.Google Scholar
  61. Green, D. J. (1998). Mental control of the bilingual lexico-semantic system. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 1, 67–81.Google Scholar
  62. Grigorenko, E. L., Sternberg, R. J., & Ehrman, M. E. (2000). A theory-based approach to the measurement of foreign language learning ability: The CANAL-F theory and test. Modern Language Journal, 84, 390–405.Google Scholar
  63. *Harrington, M., & Sawyer, M. (1992). L2 working memory capacity and L2 reading skill. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 14, 25–38.Google Scholar
  64. Harrison, T. L., Shipstead, Z., Hicks, K. L., Hambrick, D. Z., Redick, T. S., & Engle, R. W. (2013). Working memory training may increase working memory capacity but not fluid intelligence. Psychological Science. doi:10.1177/0956797613492984. Advance online publication.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Hedges, L. V., & Olkin, I. (1985). Statistical methods for meta-analysis. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  66. Hedges, L. V., Tipton, E., & Johnson, M. C. (2010). Robust variance estimation in meta-regression with dependent effect size estimates. Research Synthesis Methods, 1, 39–65.Google Scholar
  67. Hedges, L. V., & Vevea, J. L. (1998). Fixed- and random-effects models in meta-analysis. Psychological Methods, 3, 486–504. doi:10.1037/1082-989X.3.4.486 Google Scholar
  68. Hernandez, A. E., & Meschyan, G. (2006). Executive function is necessary to enhance lexical processing in a less proficient L2: Evidence from fMRI during picture naming. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 9, 177–188.Google Scholar
  69. Higgins, J. P. T., & Thompson, S. G. (2002). Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Statistics in Medicine, 21I, 1539–1558.Google Scholar
  70. Hummel, K. M. (2009). Aptitude, phonological memory, and second language proficiency in nonnovice adult learners. Applied Psycholinguistics, 30, 225–249.Google Scholar
  71. *Ikeno, O. (2006). L1 and L2 working memory: An investigation into the domain specificity and processing efficiency issues. Bulletin of the Faculty of Education at Ehime University, 53, 113–121.Google Scholar
  72. *Jackson, C. N., & Bobb, S. C. (2009). The processing and comprehension of wh-questions among second language speakers of German. Applied Psycholinguistics, 30, 603–636.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Juffs, A. (2004). Representation, processing and working memory in a second language. Transactions of the Philological Society, 102, 199–225.Google Scholar
  74. *Juffs, A. (2005). The influence of first language on the processing of wh-movement in English as a second language. Second Language Research, 21, 121–151.Google Scholar
  75. Juffs, A., & Harrington, M. (2011). Aspects of working memory in L2 learning. Language Teaching, 44, 137–166.Google Scholar
  76. Kane, M. J., Hambrick, D. Z., Tuholski, S. W., Wilhelm, O., Payne, T. W., & Engle, R. W. (2004). The generality of working memory capacity: A latent-variable approach to verbal and visuospatial memory span and reasoning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133, 189–217. doi:10.1037/0096-3445.133.2.189 Google Scholar
  77. *Kempe, V., Brooks, P. J., & Kharkhurin, A. (2010). Cognitive predictors of generalization of Russian grammatical gender categories. Language Learning, 60, 127–153.Google Scholar
  78. *Kondo, A. (2012). Phonological memory and L2 pronunciation skills. In A. Stewart & N. Sonda (Eds.), JALT2011 Conference Proceedings. Tokyo, Japan: JALT.Google Scholar
  79. Kroll, J. F., Bobb, S. C., Misra, M., & Guo, T. (2008). Language selection in bilingual speech: Evidence for inhibitory processes. Acta Psychologica, 128, 416–430.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Kroll, J. F., Bobb, S. C., & Wodnieka, Z. (2006). Language selectivity is the exception, not the rule: Arguments against a fixed locus of language selection in bilingual speech. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 9, 119–135.Google Scholar
  81. *Kroll, J. F., Michael, E., Tokowicz, N., & Dufour, R. (2002). The development of lexical fluency in a second language. Second Language Research, 18, 137–171.Google Scholar
  82. Kroll, J. F., Sumutka, B. M., & Schwartz, A. I. (2005). A cognitive view of the bilingual lexicon: Reading and speaking in two languages. International Journal of Bilingualism, 9, 27–48.Google Scholar
  83. Kyllonen, P. C., & Christal, R. E. (1990). Reasoning ability is (little more than) working-memory capacity! Intelligence, 14, 389–433.Google Scholar
  84. *Lado, B. (2008). The role of bilingualism, type of feedback, and cognitive capacity in the acquisition of non-primary languages: A computer-based study (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Georgetown University, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  85. Leeser, M. J. (2007). Learner-based factors in L2 reading comprehension and processing grammatical form: Topic familiarity and working memory. Language Learning, 57, 229–270.Google Scholar
  86. *Linck, J. A., Hoshino, N., & Kroll, J. F. (2008). Cross-language lexical processes and inhibitory control. Mental Lexicon, 3, 349–374.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Linck, J. A., Hughes, M. M., Campbell, S. G., Silbert, N. H., Tare, M., Jackson, S. R., & Doughty, C. J. (2013). Hi-LAB: A new measure of aptitude for high-level language proficiency. Language Learning, 63, 530–566. doi:10.1111/lang.12011 Google Scholar
  88. Linck, J. A., Schwieter, J. W., & Sunderman, J. (2012). Inhibitory control predicts language switching performance in trilingual speech production. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15, 651–662.Google Scholar
  89. *Linck, J. A., & Weiss, D. J. (2011). Working memory predicts the acquisition of explicit L2 knowledge. In C. Sanz & R. P. Leow (Eds.), Implicit and explicit language learning: Conditions, processes, and knowledge in SLA and bilingualism (pp. 101–114). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
  90. *Londe, Z. (2008). Working memory and English as a Second Language listening comprehension tests: A latent variable approach (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of California, Los Angeles, CA.Google Scholar
  91. MacDonald, M. C., & Christiansen, M. H. (2002). Reassessing working memory: Comment on Just and Carpenter (1992) and Waters and Caplan (1996). Psychological Review, 109, 35–54. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.109.1.35 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. *Mackey, A., Adams, R., Stafford, C., & Winke, P. (2010). Exploring the relationship between modified output and working memory capacity. Language Learning, 60, 501–533.Google Scholar
  93. *Mackey, A., & Sachs, R. (2012). Older learners in SLA research: A first look at working memory, feedback, and L2 development. Language Learning, 62, 704–740.Google Scholar
  94. *Majerus, S., Poncelet, M., Van der Linden, M., & Weekes, B. S. (2008). Lexical learning in bilingual adults: The relative importance of short-term memory for serial order and phonological knowledge. Cognition, 107, 395–419. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2007.10.003 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Marin-Martinez, F., & Sanchez-Meca, J. (1999). Averaging dependent effect sizes in meta-analysis: A cautionary note about procedures. Spanish Journal of Psychology, 2, 32–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. *Martin, K. I., & Ellis, N. C. (2012). The roles of phonological short-term memory and working memory in L2 grammar and vocabulary learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 34, 379–413.Google Scholar
  97. *McDonald, J. (2006). Beyond the critical period: Processing-based explanations for poor grammaticality judgment performance by late second language learners. Journal of Memory and Language, 55, 381–401.Google Scholar
  98. McElree, B. (2001). Working memory and focal attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27, 817–835. doi:10.1037/0278-7393.27.3.817 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Michael, E. B., & Gollan, T. H. (2005). Being and becoming bilingual: Individual differences and consequences for language production. In J. F. Kroll & A. M. B. De Groot (Eds.), Handbook of bilingualism: Psycholinguistic approaches (pp. 389–408). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  100. *Miki, S. (2012). Working memory as a factor affecting L2 listening comprehension sub-skills. Kumamoto University Departmental Bulletin Paper, 10, 119–128.Google Scholar
  101. *Miyake, A., & Friedman, N. P. (1998). Individual differences in second language proficiency: Working memory as language aptitude. In A. F. Healy & L. E. Bourne (Eds.), Foreign language learning: Psycholinguistic studies on training and retention (pp. 339–364). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  102. Miyake, A., & Friedman, N. P. (2012). The nature and organization of individual differences in executive functions: Four general conclusions. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21, 8–14.Google Scholar
  103. Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Emerson, M. J., Witzki, A. H., Howerter, A., & Wager, T. D. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41, 49–100. doi:10.1006/cogp.1999.0734 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Miyake, A., & Shah, P. (Eds.). (1999). Models of working memory: Mechanisms of active maintenance and executive control. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  105. *Mizera, G. J. (2006). Working memory and L2 oral fluency (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.Google Scholar
  106. Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D. G., & the PRISMA Group. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA Statement. Annals of Internal Medicine, 151, 264–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. *Mota, M. B. (2003). Working memory capacity and fluency, accuracy, complexity, and lexical density in L2 speech production. Fragmentos, 24, 69–104.Google Scholar
  108. Norman, D. A., & Shallice, T. (1986). Attention to action: Willed and automatic control of behavior. In R. J. Davidson, G. E. Schwartz, & D. Shapiro (Eds.), Consciousness and self-regulation (Vol. 4, pp. 1–18). New York, NY: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  109. Novick, J. M., Hussey, E., Teubner-Rhodes, S., Harbison, J. I., & Bunting, M. F. (2013). Clearing the garden-path: Improving sentence processing through cognitive control training. Language and Cognitive Processes. doi:10.1080/01690965.2012.758297. Advance online publication.Google Scholar
  110. *O’Brien, I., Segalowitz, N., Collentine, J., & Freed, B. (2006). Phonological memory and lexical, narrative, and grammatical skills in second language oral production by adult learners. Applied Psycholinguistics, 27, 377–402.Google Scholar
  111. *O’Brien, I., Segalowitz, N., Freed, B., & Collentine, J. (2007). Phonological memory predicts second language oral fluency gains in adults. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 29, 557–581.Google Scholar
  112. Orwin, R. G. (1983). A fail-safe N for effect size in meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Statistics, 8, 157–159.Google Scholar
  113. Osaka, M., & Osaka, N. (1992). Language-independent working memory as measured by Japanese and English reading span tests. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 30, 287–289.Google Scholar
  114. *Payne, T. W., Kalibatseva, Z., & Jungers, M. K. (2009). Does domain experience compensate for working memory capacity in second language reading comprehension? Learning and Individual Differences, 19, 119–123.Google Scholar
  115. *Payne, J. S., & Ross, B. M. (2005). Synchronous CMC, working memory, and L2 oral proficiency development. Language Learning and Technology, 9, 35–54.Google Scholar
  116. *Payne, J. S., & Whitney, P. (2002). Developing L2 oral proficiency through synchronous CMC: Output, working memory, and interlanguage development. CALICO Journal, 20, 7–32.Google Scholar
  117. Piolat, A., Olive, T., & Kellogg, R. T. (2005). Cognitive effort during note taking. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19, 291–312.Google Scholar
  118. *Poelmans, P. (2003). Developing second-language listening comprehension: Effects of training lower-order skills versus higher-order strategy (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  119. *Posedel, J., Emery, L., Souza, B., & Fountain, C. (2012). Pitch perception, working memory, and second-language phonological production. Psychology of Music, 40, 508–517.Google Scholar
  120. *Prebianca, G. V. V. (2009). Working memory capacity, lexical access and proficiency level in L2 speech production (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis-SC, Brazil.Google Scholar
  121. *Prebianca, G. V. V., & D’Ely, R. (2008). EFL speaking and individual differences in working memory capacity: Grammatical complexity and weighted lexical density in the oral production of beginners. Signótica, 20, 335–366.Google Scholar
  122. Prior, A., & Gollan, T. H. (2011). Good language-switchers are good task-switchers: Evidence from Spanish–English and Mandarin–English bilinguals. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 17, 682–691.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. R Development Core Team. (2012). R: A language and environment for statistical computing (ISBN 3-900051-07-0). Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Retrieved from www.R-project.org
  124. *Rai, M. K., Loschky, L. C., Harris, R. J., Peck, N. R., & Cook, L. G. (2011). Effects of stress and working memory capacity on foreign language readers’ inferential processing during comprehension. Language Learning, 61, 187–218.Google Scholar
  125. *Ransdell, S., Barbier, M.-L., & Niit, T. (2006). Metacognitions about language skill and working memory among monolingual and bilingual college students: When does multilingualism matter? International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 9, 728–741.Google Scholar
  126. Redick, T. S., Broadway, J. M., Meier, M. E., Kuriakose, P. S., Unsworth, N., Kane, M. J., & Engle, R. W. (2012). Measuring working memory capacity with automated complex span tasks. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 28, 164–171.Google Scholar
  127. *Révész, A. (2012). Working memory and the observed effectiveness of recasts on different L2 outcome measures. Language Learning, 62, 93–132.Google Scholar
  128. Robinson, P. (1995). Attention, memory and the “noticing” hypothesis. Language Learning, 45, 285–331.Google Scholar
  129. *Roehr, K., & Gánem-Gutiérrez, G. A. (2009). The status of metalinguistic knowledge in instructed adult L2 learning. Language Awareness, 18, 165–181.Google Scholar
  130. Rosenthal, R. (1979). The “file drawer problem” and tolerance fornull results. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 638–641.Google Scholar
  131. Rosenthal, R. (1995). Writing meta-analytic reviews. Psychological Bulletin, 118, 183–192. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.118.2.183 Google Scholar
  132. *Safranova, E., & Mora, J. C. (2012). Acoustic and phonological memory in L2 perception. In S. Martín Alegre, M. Moyer, E. Pladevall & S. Tubau (Eds.), At a time of crisis: English and American studies in Spain (pp. 384–390). Barcelona, Spain: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona/AEDEAN, Departament de Filologia Anglesa i de Germanística.Google Scholar
  133. *Sagarra, N., & Herschensohn, J. (2010). The role of proficiency and working memory in gender and number agreement processing in L1 and L2 Spanish. Lingua, 120, 2022–2039.Google Scholar
  134. Schafer, W. D. (1999). An overview of meta-analysis. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development (American Counseling Association), 32, 43. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.Google Scholar
  135. Schwieter, J. W., & Sunderman, G. (2008). Language switching in bilingual speech production: In search of the language-specific selection mechanism. Mental Lexicon, 3, 214–238.Google Scholar
  136. *Service, E., Simola, M., Metsaenheimo, O., & Maury, S. (2002). Bilingual working memory span is affected by language skill. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 14, 383–407.Google Scholar
  137. Shipstead, Z., Harrison, T. L., Trani, A. N., Redick, T. S., Sloan, P., Bunting, M. F., … Engle, R. W. (2013). Working memory capacity and executive functions, Part 1: General fluid intelligence. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  138. Shipstead, Z., Redick, T. S., & Engle, R. W. (2012). Is working memory training effective? Psychological Bulletin, 138, 628–654. doi:10.1037/a0027473 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Shipstead, Z., Trani, A. N., Harrison, T. L., Redick, T. S., Sloan, P., Bunting, M. F., … Engle, R. W. (2013). Working memory capacity and executive functions, Part 2: Language comprehension. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  140. Skehan, P. (1989). Individual differences in second-language learning. London, UK: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  141. *Slevc, L. R., & Miyake, A. (2006). Individual differences in second-language proficiency: Does musical ability matter? Psychological Science, 17, 675–681. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2006.01765.x PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. *Speciale, G., Ellis, N. C., & Bywater, T. (2004). Phonological sequence learning and short-term store capacity determine second language vocabulary acquisition. Applied Psycholinguistics, 25, 293–321.Google Scholar
  143. Sprenger, A. M., Atkins, S. M., Bolger, D. J., Harbison, J. I., Novick, J. M., Chrabaszcz, J. S., … Dougherty, M. R. (2013). Training working memory: Limits of transfer. Intelligence, 41, 638–663. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2013.07.013
  144. Sutton, A. J., & Higgins, J. P. T. (2008). Recent developments in meta-analysis. Statistics in Medicine, 27, 625–650.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. *Taguchi, N. (2008). The effect of working memory, semantic access, and listening abilities on the comprehension of conversational implicatures in L2 English. Pragmatic and Cognition, 16, 517–539.Google Scholar
  146. *Tavares, M. da G. G. (2008). Pre-task planning, working memory capacity, and L2 speech performance (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis-SC, Brazil.Google Scholar
  147. Tokowicz, N., Michael, E. B., & Kroll, J. F. (2004). The roles of study-abroad experience and working-memory capacity in the types of errors made during translation. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 7, 255–272.Google Scholar
  148. *Torres, A. C. G. (2003). Capacidade de memória de trabalho e desempenho de leitores na construção de idéias principais em L1 e L2 (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis-SC, Brazil.Google Scholar
  149. *Trofimovich, P., Ammar, A., & Gatbonton, E. (2007). How effective are recasts? The role of attention, memory, and analytical ability. In A. Mackey (Ed.), Conversational interaction in second language acquisition: A series of empirical studies (pp. 171–195). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  150. *Tsuchihira, T. (2007). L2 working memory capacity and L2 listening test scores of Japanese junior college students. Bunkyo Gakuin Foreign Language Department of Bunkyo Gakuin Junior College, 7, 159–175.Google Scholar
  151. *Tzou, Y.-Z. (2008). The roles of working memory, language proficiency, and training in simultaneous interpretation performance: Evidence from Chinese–English bilinguals (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas.Google Scholar
  152. Unsworth, N., & Engle, R. W. (2007). On the division of short-term and working memory: An examination of simple and complex span and their relation to higher order abilities. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 1038–1066. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.133.6.1038 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Unsworth, N., & Spillers, G. J. (2010). Working memory capacity: Attention control, secondary memory, or both? A direct test of the dual-component model. Journal of Memory and Language, 62, 392–406.Google Scholar
  154. *Van Dijk, R., Christoffels, I., Postma, A., & Hermans, D. (2012). The relation between the working memory skills of sign language interpreters and the quality of their interpretations. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15, 340–350.Google Scholar
  155. Viechtbauer, W. (2010). Conducting meta-analyses in R with the metafor package. Journal of Statistical Software, 36(3), 1–48. Retrieved from www.jstatsoft.org/v36/i03/ Google Scholar
  156. von Bastian, C. C., & Oberauer, K. (2013). Distinct transfer effects of training different facets of working memory capacity. Journal of Memory and Language, 69, 36–58.Google Scholar
  157. Watanabe, Y., & Bergsleithner, J. M. (2006). A systematic research synthesis of L2 WM measurements. In Z. Madden-Wood & K. Oeki (Eds.), Proceedings 2006: Selected papers from the tenth college-wide conference for students in languages, linguistics, and literature (pp. 47–60). Manoa, HI: University of Hawaii, Manoa, College of Languages, Linguistics, and Literature.Google Scholar
  158. *Weissheimer, J., & Mota, M. B. (2009). Individual differences in working memory capacity and the development of L2 speech production. Issues in Applied Linguistics, 17, 93–112.Google Scholar
  159. Williams, J. N. (2011). Working memory and SLA. In S. M. Gass & A. Mackey (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 427–441). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  160. *Winke, P. (2005). Individual differences in adult Chinese second language acquisition: The relationships among aptitude, memory, and strategies for learning (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Georgetown University, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  161. *Xhafaj, D. C. P. (2006). Pause distribution and working memory capacity in L2 speech production. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianapólis, Brazil.Google Scholar
  162. *Zaki, H. M. (2005). Language and working memory capacity in early adulthood: Contributions from first and second language proficiency (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jared A. Linck
    • 1
  • Peter Osthus
    • 1
    • 2
  • Joel T. Koeth
    • 2
  • Michael F. Bunting
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Advanced Study of LanguageUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  2. 2.Second Language Acquisition ProgramUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations