The spatial–numerical association of response codes (SNARC) has shown that parity judgments with participants’ left hands yield faster response times (RTs) for smaller numbers than for larger numbers, with the opposite result for right-hand responses. These findings have been explained by participants perceptually simulating magnitude on a mental number line. In three RT experiments, we showed that the SNARC effect can also be explained by language statistics. Participants made parity judgments of number words (Exp. 1) and Arabic numerals (Exp. 2). Linguistic frequencies of the number words and numbers mirrored the SNARC effect, explaining aspects of processing that a perceptual simulation account could not. In Experiment 3, we investigated whether high- and low-frequency nonnumerical words would also elicit a SNARC-like effect. Again, RTs were faster for high-frequency words for left-hand responses, with the opposite result for right-hand responses. These results demonstrate that what has only been attributed to perceptual simulation should also be attributed to language statistics.
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The same analysis, but using the mean RT per number word (or numeral) per response side per participant, so that mean (rather than median) left-hand responses were subtracted from the mean right-hand responses, yielded similar results for all three experiments, as can be seen in the following table.
Exp. 1 Exp. 2 Exp. 3 df F df F df F Magnitude 5817 1.01 4973 0.1 Frequency 5588 0.18 4973 2.37 1856 3.24 Response Side × Magnitude 5817 12.52** 4973 13.88** Frequency × Magnitude 5586 8.67** 4973 14.6** 1856 7.33** Bigram Frequency × Response Side 3082 13.77** 2098 18.34**
The same analysis when 0 was excluded yielded nonsignificant main effects of response side, F(1, 4408) = 0.26, p = .61, R 2 = .005, and frequency, F(1, 4408) = 0.24, p = .62, R 2 = .005, but a significant interaction between response side and magnitude, F(1, 4408) = 17.14, p < .001, R 2 = .32.
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Hutchinson, S., Louwerse, M.M. Language statistics explain the spatial–numerical association of response codes. Psychon Bull Rev 21, 470–478 (2014). https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-013-0492-2
- Numerical cognition
- Perceptual simulation
- Embodied cognition
- Number processing
- Symbol interdependency
- Language statistics