Advertisement

Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 178–185 | Cite as

A bottom-up view of toddler word learning

  • Alfredo F. PereiraEmail author
  • Linda B. Smith
  • Chen Yu
Brief Report

Abstract

A head camera was used to examine the visual correlates of object name learning by toddlers as they played with novel objects and as the parent spontaneously named those objects. The toddlers’ learning of the object names was tested after play, and the visual properties of the head camera images during naming events associated with learned and unlearned object names were analyzed. Naming events associated with learning had a clear visual signature, one in which the visual information itself was clean and visual competition among objects was minimized. Moreover, for learned object names, the visual advantage of the named target over competitors was sustained, both before and after the heard name. The findings are discussed in terms of the visual and cognitive processes that may depend on clean sensory input for learning and also on the sensory–motor, cognitive, and social processes that may create these optimal visual moments for learning.

Keywords

Visual attention Language comprehension Word recognition 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Charlotte Wozniak, Amanda Favata, Amara Stuehling, and Andrew Filipowicz for collection of the data and Thomas Smith for developing data management and preprocessing software. This research was supported by National Science Foundation Grant 0924248, AFOSR FA9550-09-1-0665, NICHHD grant R01HD 28675, and Portuguese Ministry of Education and Science Postdoctoral fellowship SFRH/BPD/70122/2010 awarded to Alfredo F. Pereira.

References

  1. Adolph, K. E., & Berger, S. E. (2006). Motor development. In W. Damon & R. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol 2 (6th ed., pp. 161–213). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  2. Allopenna, P. D., Magnuson, J. S., & Tanenhaus, M. K. (1998). Tracking the time course of spoken word recognition using eye movements: Evidence for continuous mapping models. Journal of Memory and Language, 38(4), 419–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aslin, R. N. (2009). How infants view natural scenes gathered from a head-mounted camera. Optometry and Vision Science: American Academy of Optometry, 86(6), 561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baayen, R. H., Davidson, D. J., & Bates, D. M. (2008). Mixed-effects modeling with crossed random effects for subjects and items. Journal of memory and language, 59(4), 390–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baldwin, D. A. (1995). Understanding the link between joint attention and language In: Joint attention: Its origins and role in development, ed. C. Moore & P. J. Dunham. Erlbaum, 131–158.Google Scholar
  6. Bates, D. (2005). Fitting linear mixed models in R. R news, 5(1), 27–30.Google Scholar
  7. Bates, D. (2012). Linear mixed model implementation in lme4. Ms., University of Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  8. Bertenthal, B., & Von Hofsten, C. (1998). Eye, head and trunk control: The foundation for manual development. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 22(4), 515–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Booth, A. E., & Waxman, S. R. (2009). A horse of a different color: Specifying with precision infants’ mapping of novel nouns and adjectives. Child Development, 80, 15–22.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cicchino, J. B., Aslin, R. N., & Rakison, D. H. (2010). Correspondences between what infants see and know about causal and self-propelled motion. Cognition, 118, 171–192.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Colombo, J. (2001). The development of visual attention in infancy. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 337–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fennell, C. T. (2011). Object familiarity enhances infants’ use of phonetic detail in novel words. Infancy Google Scholar
  13. Frank, M. C., Goodman, N. D., & Tenenbaum, J. B. (2009). Using speakers' referential intentions to model early cross-situational word learning. Psychological Science, 20(5), 578–585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Henderson, J. M., Chanceaux, M., & Smith, T. J. (2009). The influence of clutter on real-world scene search: Evidence from search efficiency and eye movements. Journal of Vision, 9(1).Google Scholar
  15. Iverson, J. M. (2010). Developing language in a developing body: The relationship between motor development and language development. Journal of Child Language, 37(02), 229–261.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kannass, K. N., Oakes, L. M., & Shaddy, D. J. (2006). A longitudinal investigation of the development of attention and distractibility. Journal of Cognition and Development, 7(3), 381–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Knudsen, E. I. (2007). Fundamental components of attention. Annu. Rev. Neurosci., 30, 57–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lawson, K. R., & Ruff, H. A. (2004). Early focused attention predicts outcome for children born prematurely. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 25(6), 399–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lidz, J., Waxman, S. R., & Freedman, J. (2003). What infants know about syntax but couldn’t have learned: Experimental evidence for syntactic structure at 18 months. Cognition, 89, 295–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mayer, D. L., & Fulton, A. N. (1993). Development of the human visual field. In K. Simons (Ed.), Early Visual Development, Normal and Abnormal (pp. 117–129). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Mirman, D., Dixon, J. A., & Magnuson, J. S. (2008). Statistical and computational models of the visual world paradigm: Growth curves and individual differences. Journal of memory and language, 59(4), 475–494.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Oakes, L. M., Hurley, K. B., Ross-Sheehy, S., & Luck, S. J. (2010). Developmental changes in infants' visual short-term memory for location. Cognition, 118, 293–305.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. R development core team. (2008). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation Statistical Computing.Google Scholar
  24. Ramscar, M., Yarlett, D., Dye, M., Denny, K., & Thorpe, K. (2010). The effects of feature label order and their implications for symbolic learning. Cognitive Science, 34(6), 909–957.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Richards, J. E., & Cronise, K. (2000). Extended visual fixation in the early preschool years: Look duration, heart rate changes, and attentional inertia. Child Development, 71(3), 602–620.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Smith, L. B., Yu, C., & Pereira, A. F. (2011). Not your mother’s view: The dynamics of toddler visual experience. Developmental Science, 14(1), 9–17.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Smith, L., & Yu, C. (2008). Infants rapidly learn word-referent mappings via cross-situational statistics. Cognition, 106, 1558–1568.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tomasello, M., & Akhtar, N. (1995). Two-year-olds use pragmatic cues to differentiate reference to objects and actions. Cognitive Development, 10(2), 201–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Xu, F., & Tenenbaum, J. B. (2007). Word learning as Bayesian inference. Psychological Review, 114, 245–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Yoshida, H., & Smith, L. B. (2008). What's in view for toddlers? using a head camera to study visual experience. Infancy, 13(3), 229–248.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Yu, C., Smith, L. B., Shen, H., Pereira, A. F., & Smith, T. (2009). Active information selection: Visual attention through the hands. Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on, 1(2), 141–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universidade do MinhoBragaPortugal
  2. 2.Indiana University BloomingtonBloomingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations