When searching for objects in the environment, observers necessarily encounter other, nontarget, objects. Despite their irrelevance for search, observers often incidentally encode the details of these objects, an effect that is exaggerated as the search task becomes more challenging. Although it is well established that searchers create incidental memories for targets, less is known about the fidelity with which nontargets are remembered. Do observers store richly detailed representations of nontargets, or are these memories characterized by gist-level detail, containing only the information necessary to reject the item as a nontarget? We addressed this question across two experiments in which observers completed multiple-target (one to four potential targets) searches, followed by surprise alternative forced-choice (AFC) recognition tests for all encountered objects. To assess the detail of incidentally stored memories, we used similarity rankings derived from multidimensional scaling to manipulate the perceptual similarity across objects in 4-AFC (Experiment 1a) and 16-AFC (Experiments 1b and 2) tests. Replicating prior work, observers recognized more nontarget objects encountered during challenging, relative to easier, searches. More importantly, AFC results revealed that observers stored more than gist-level detail: When search objects were not recognized, observers systematically chose lures with higher perceptual similarity, reflecting partial encoding of the search object’s perceptual features. Further, similarity effects increased with search difficulty, revealing that incidental memories for visual search objects are sharpened when the search task requires greater attentional processing.
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Previous work has demonstrated that multiple-target search incurs performance costs relative to single-target search (e.g., Menneer et al., 2007; Menneer, Cave, & Donnelly, 2009). However, it is possible that these costs derive from memory demands rather than from task parameters such as search difficulty.
Color serves as a basic visual feature, which would make most search processes relatively easy, regardless of other manipulations (see Wolfe & Horowitz, 2017).
We thank an anonymous reviewer for this suggestion.
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We thank Emily Green for her efforts at helping conceptualize this project, and for overseeing all data collection at NMSU as part of her NMSU Honors College Thesis project. We also thank Jessica Budd and Cameron Grimball for their assistance with data collection.
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Appendix B. Visual search performance
Experiments 1a and 1b
Search accuracy was examined in 3 (Working-Memory Load: High, Medium, Low) × 2 (Number of Targets) repeated-measures ANOVA on search hit rates. The main effect of WM Load in Experiment 1a, F (1.82, 109.06) = 58.13, p < .001, ηp2 = .49, BF10 =5.272e+18, revealed higher hits rate on Low-Load trials (M = .99, SE = .001), followed by Medium-Load (M = .97, SE = .004) and High-Load (M = .96, SE = .005) trials. The main effect of Number of Targets, F (1, 60) = 76.56, p < .001, ηp2 = .56, BF10 =3.614e+7, is interpreted in the context of the reliable interaction, F (2, 120) = 11.58 p < .001, ηp2 = .16, BF10 =247.5: Search hits for one target (M = .98, SE = .002) were higher than two targets (M = .97, SE = .004), but only when searching under High or Medium WM Loads, both ps < .05. This was replicated in Experiment 1b, where a main effect of Number of Targets, F (1, 63) = 45.06, p < .001, ηp2 = .42, BF10 =840,223, and a reliable interaction was observed, F (1.82, 114.39) = 7.86, p < .001, ηp2 = .11, BF10 =21.22. The main effect of WM Load in Experiment, F (2, 126) = 48.05, p < .001, ηp2 = .43, BF10=1.276e+15, again revealed higher hits rate on Low Load trials (M = .99 SE = .002), followed by Medium Load (M = .98 SE = .003) and High Load (M = .97 SE = .004) trials.
A paired-sample t-test was conducted on the search hit rate across Load conditions in Experiment 2. The effect of Load is reliable, t(62) = 10.76, p < .001 , Cohen’s d = 1.36, BF10= 7.79e+12, indicating that more targets were detected in the Low- (M = 97.1, SE = .01), relative to High- (M = 88.7, SE = .01), Load condition. A similar effect was observed in false alarms, t(62) = 2.82 p = .007, Cohen’s d = 0.36, BF10= 4.98, with lower false alarms in the Low- (M = .02, SE = .004) than in the High-Load condition (M = .04, SE = .01).
Appendix C. Target recognition memory
Experiments 1a and 1b
The proportion of correct recognition choices was examined in one-way repeated-measures ANOVAs, comparing recognition for targets to nontargets encountered during Low-, Medium-, and High-Load searches. A reliable effect was observed in Experiment 1a, F (3, 180) = 437.5, p < .001, ηp2 = .88, BF10= 1.475e+81, in which recognition differed across all items, with target objects recognized the best (M = .94, SE = .01). More importantly, nontargets objects encountered during High-Load search (M = .63, SE = .02) were recognized better than nontargets encountered during Medium- (M = .58, SE = .02) and Low-Load search (M = .48, SE = .01). Similarly, a reliable effect was observed in Experiment 1b, F (2.56, 161.24) = 660.88, p < .001, ηp2 = .91, BF10= 1.574e+101, with target objects recognized the best (M = .80, SE = .02), while nontargets encountered during High-Load search (M = .31, SE = .02) were recognized more often than nontargets encountered during Medium- (M = .26, SE = .01) and Low-Load search (M = .22, SE = .01), both ps < .001. Nontargets from Medium-Load search were recognized better than nontargets from Low-Load search, p = .035.
Appendix D. Target recognition errors
Experiments 1a and 1b
In Experiment 1a, each 4-AFC comparison included lures designated as relatively similar, moderately similar, and relatively dissimilar to the studied exemplar. Similarly, in Experiment 1b, lures were rank-ordered, from 1 (highest similarity) to 15 (lowest similarity). False alarms could thus be examined as a function of the perceptual overlap between studied exemplars and categorically related lures in both experiments. Separate one-way repeated-measures ANOVAs analyzed the impact of exemplar-lure similarity on the proportion of false alarms in Experiments 1a and 1b. Both experiments revealed reliable effects of lure similarity (Experiment 1a: F (1.5, 90.02) = 25.79, p < .001, ηp2 = .30, BF10 = 7.141e+9; Experiment 1b: F (9.92, 624.92) = 13.45, p < .001, ηp2 = .18, BF10 = 4.035e+27), indicating that when recognition of target objects failed, observers were more likely to commit false alarms to lures of high similarity with the target.
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Guevara Pinto, J.D., Papesh, M.H. & Hout, M.C. The detail is in the difficulty: Challenging search facilitates rich incidental object encoding. Mem Cogn 48, 1214–1233 (2020). https://doi.org/10.3758/s13421-020-01051-3
- Incidental memory
- Visual search
- Search difficulty