Advertisement

Memory & Cognition

, Volume 46, Issue 3, pp 410–425 | Cite as

Mora or more? The phonological unit of Japanese word production in the Stroop color naming task

  • Rinus G. Verdonschot
  • Sachiko Kinoshita
Article

Abstract

In English, Dutch, and other European languages, it is well established that the fundamental phonological unit in word production is the phoneme; in contrast, recent studies have shown that in Chinese it is the (atonal) syllable and in Japanese the mora. The present study investigated whether this cross-language variation in the size of the unit of word production is due to the type of script used in the language (i.e., alphabetic, morphosyllabic, or moraic). Capitalizing on the multiscriptal nature of Japanese, and using the Stroop color naming task, we show that the overlap in the initial mora between the color name and the written distractor facilitates color naming independent of script type. These results confirm the mora as the phonological unit of word production in Japanese, and establish the Stroop color naming task as a useful task for investigating the fundamental (or “proximate”) phonological unit used in speech production.

Keywords

Language production Psycholinguistics 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research is supported by a JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) (17K02748) as well as a Waseda University Grant for Promotion of International Joint Research to Rinus G. Verdonschot. We are grateful to Akira Yoshida for his assistance in carrying out the experiments.

References

  1. Alario, X. L., Perre, L., Castel, C., & Ziegler, J.C. (2007). The role of orthography in speech production revisited. Cognition, 102, 464–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Baayen, R. H. (2008). Analyzing linguistic data: A practical introduction to statistics using R. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bates, D., Maechler, M., Bolker, B. & Walker, S. (2015). Fitting Linear Mixed-Effects Models Using lme4. Journal of Statistical Software, 67(1), 1–48. doi:  https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v067.i01.
  4. Caramazza, A. (1997). How many levels of processing are there in lexical access? Cognitive Neuropsychology, 14(1), 177–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Castles, A., & Coltheart, M. (2004). Is there a causal link from phonological awareness to success in learning to read? Cognition, 91, 77–111.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen, J.-Y., Chen, T.-M., & Dell, G. S. (2002). Word-form encoding in Mandarin Chinese as assessed by the implicit priming task. Journal of Memory and Language, 46, 751–781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen, J.-Y., Lin, W.-C., & Ferrand, L. (2003). Masked priming of the syllable in Mandarin Chinese speech production. Chinese Journal of Psychology, 45, 107–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen, J.-Y., O’Seaghdha, P. G., & Chen, T.-M. (2016). The primacy of abstract syllables in Chinese word production. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 42, 825–836. doi: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0039911 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Coltheart, M., Woollams, A., Kinoshita, S., & Perry, C. (1999). A position-sensitive Stroop effect: Further evidence for a left-to-right component in print-to-speech conversion. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 6, 456–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Damian, M., & Bowers, J. (2003). Effects of orthography on speech production in a form-preparation paradigm. Journal of Memory and Language, 49, 119–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dell, G. S. (1986). A spreading-activation theory of retrieval in sentence production. Psychological Review, 93(3), 283.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Dimitropoulou, M., Dunabeitia, J. A., & Carreiras, M. (2010). Influence of prime lexicality, frequency and pronounceability on the masked onset priming effect. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63, 1813–1837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Feldman, L. B., & Turvey, M. T. (1980). Words written in Kana are named faster than the same words written in kanji. Language and Speech, 23(2), 141–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Forster, K. I., & Davis, C. (1991). The density constraint on form-priming in the naming task: Interference effects from a masked prime. Journal of Memory and Language, 30, 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Forster, K. I., & Forster, J. C. (2003). DMDX: A Windows display program with millisecond accuracy. Behavior Research Methods Instruments and Computers, 35, 116–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gómez, D. M., Berent, I., Benavides-Varela, S., Bion, R. A., Cattarossi, L., Nespor, M., & Mehler, J. (2014). Language universals at birth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(16), 5837–5841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ito, T., & Tatsumi, I. (1997). Tokusyu-haku ni taisuru meta-genngo-chisiki no hattatsu [The development of metalinguistic awareness of mora- phonemes in Japanese young children]. The Japan Journal of Logopedics and Phoniatrics, 38, 196–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kinoshita, S. (2000). The left-to-right nature of the masked onset priming effect in naming. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 7, 133–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kinoshita, S., De Wit, B., & Norris, D. (2017). The magic of words reconsidered: Investigating the automaticity of reading color-neutral words in the Stroop task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 43, 369–384.Google Scholar
  20. Kinoshita, S., & Woollams, A. (2002). The masked onset priming effect in naming: Computation of phonology or speech-planning? Memory & Cognition, 30, 237–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kubozono, H. (1989). The mora and syllable structure in Japanese: Evidence from speech errors. Language and Speech, 32, 249–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kureta, Y., Fushimi, T., Sakuma, N., & Tatsumi, I. F. (2015). Orthographic influences on the word-onset phoneme preparation effect in native Japanese speakers: Evidence from the word-form preparation paradigm. Japanese Psychological Research, 57, 50–60. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/jpr.12067 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kureta, Y., Fushimi, T., & Tatsumi, I. F. (2006). The functional unit in phonological encoding: Evidence for moraic representation in native Japanese speakers. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32, 1102–1119. doi: https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.32.5.1102 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Kuznetsova, A., Brockhoff, P. B., & Christensen, R. H. B. (2016). lmerTest: Tests in linear mixed effects models (R Package Version 2.0–30) [Computer software]. Retrieved from http://cran.r-project.org/package=lmerTest
  25. Levelt, W. J. M., Roelofs, A., & Meyer, A. S. (1999). A theory of lexical access in speech production. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22, 1–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Li, C., Wang, M., & Idsardi, W. (2015). The effect of orthographic form-cuing on the phonological preparation unit in spoken word production. Memory & Cognition, 43, 563–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Meyer, A. S. (1990). The time course of phonological encoding in language production: The encoding of successive syllables of a word. Journal of Memory and Language, 29, 524–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Meyer, A. S. (1991). The time course of phonological encoding in language production: Phonological encoding inside a syllable. Journal of Memory and Language, 30, 69–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Monsell, S., Taylor, T. J., & Murphy, K. (2001). Naming the color of a word: Is it response or task sets that compete? Memory & Cognition, 29, 137–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Morais, J., Cary, L., Alegria, J., & Bertelson, P. (1979). Does awareness of speech as a sequence of phones arise spontaneously? Cognition, 7, 323–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mousikou, P., Rastle, K., Besner, D., & Coltheart, M. (2015). The locus of serial processing in reading aloud: Orthography-to-phonology computation or speech planning? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 41, 1076–1099. doi: https://doi.org/10.1037/xlm0000090 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Nakayama, M., Kinoshita, S., & Verdonschot, R. G. (2016). The emergence of a phoneme-sized unit of speech planning in Japanese-English bilinguals. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 175.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. O’Seaghdha, P. (2015). Across the great divide: Proximate units at the lexical-phonological interface. Japanese Psychological Research, 57, 4–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. O’Seaghdha, P. G., & Chen, J. Y. (2009). Toward a language-general account of word production: The proximate units principle. In: CogSci... Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society (US). Conference (Vol. 2009, p. 68). NIH Public Access.Google Scholar
  35. O’Seaghdha, P. G., Chen, J.-Y., & Chen, T.-M. (2010). Proximate units in word production: Phonological encoding begins with syllables in Mandarin Chinese but with segments in English. Cognition, 115, 282–302.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Otake, T., Hatano, G., Cutler, A., & Mehler, J. (1993). Mora or syllable? Speech segmentation in Japanese. Journal of Memory and Language, 32, 258–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. R Core Team. (2016). R: A language and environment for statistical computing [Computer software manual]. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for statistical computing. Retrieved from http://www.R-project.org/
  38. Rastle, K., & Coltheart, M. (2006). Is there serial processing in the reading system; and are there local representations? In S. Andrews (Ed.), From inkmark to ideas: Current issues in lexical processing (pp. 3–24.) Hove: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  39. Read, C., Zhang, Y., Nie, H., & Ding, B. (1986). The ability to manipulate speech sounds depends on knowing alphabetic spelling. Cognition, 24, 31–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Roelofs, A. (2003). Goal-referenced selection of verbal action: Modeling attentional control in the Stroop task. Psychological Review, 110, 88–125.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Roelofs, A. (2004). Seriality of phonological encoding in naming objects and reading their names. Memory & Cognition, 32, 212–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Roelofs, A. (2006). The influence of spelling on phonological encoding in word reading, object naming, and word generation. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 33–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Roelofs, A. (2015). Modeling of phonological encoding in spoken word production: From Germanic languages to Mandarin Chinese and Japanese. Japanese Psychological Research, 57, 22–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Schiller, N. O. (2004). The onset effect in word naming. Journal of Memory & Language, 50, 477–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Stroop, J. R. (1935) Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18(6), 643–662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tamaoka, K. (2005). Is an orthographic unit of a single Japanese kanji equivalent to a single kanji phonological unit in a naming task? Cognitive Studies, 12, 47–73. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  47. Tamaoka, K., Makioka, S., Sanders, S., & Verdonschot, R. G. (2017). A new interactive online database for psychological and linguistic research on Japanese kanji and their compound words. Psychological Research, 81, 696–708. Available at www.kanjidatabase.com CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Verdonschot, R. G., Kiyama, S., Tamaoka, K., Kinoshita, S., La Heij, W., & Schiller, N. O. (2011). The functional unit of Japanese word naming: evidence from masked priming. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 37, 1458–1473.Google Scholar
  49. Verdonschot, R. G., La Heij, W., Tamaoka, K., Kiyama, S., You, W.-P., & Schiller, N. O. (2013). The multiple pronunciations of Japanese kanji: A masked priming investigation. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66, 2023–2038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Verdonschot, R. G., Lai, J., Feng, C., Tamaoka, K., & Schiller, N. O. (2015). Constructing initial phonology in Mandarin Chinese: Syllabic or sub-syllabic? A masked priming investigation. Japanese Psychological Research, 57, 61–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wong, A. W.-K., & Chen, H.-C. (2008). Processing segmental and prosodic information in Cantonese word production. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 34, 1172–1190.Google Scholar
  52. Wong, A. W.-K., Huang, J., & Chen, H.-C. (2012). Phonological units in spoken word production: Insights from Cantonese. PLOS ONE, 7(11), e48776CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Wong, A. W.-K, & Chen, H.-C. (2009). What are effective phonological units in Cantonese spoken word planning? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16, 888–892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wydell, T. N., Butterworth, B., & Patterson, K. (1995). The inconsistency of consistency effects in reading: The case of Japanese kanji. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition, 21(5), 1155–1168.Google Scholar
  55. Yoshihara, M., Nakayama, M., Verdonschot, R. G., & Hino, Y. (2017). The phonological unit of Japanese kanji compounds: A masked priming investigation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 43(7), 1303–1328. doi: https://doi.org/10.1037/xhp0000374 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. You, W.-P., Zhang, Q.-F., & Verdonschot, R. G. (2012). Masked syllable priming effects in word and picture naming in Chinese. PLOS ONE, 8, e46595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Institute of Biomedical & Health SciencesHiroshima UniversityHiroshimaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Psychology and ARC Centre of Excellence for Cognition and its DisordersMacquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations