Working memory (WM) training has recently become a topic of intense interest and controversy. Although several recent studies have reported near- and far-transfer effects as a result of training WM-related skills, others have failed to show far transfer, suggesting that generalization effects are elusive. Also, many of the earlier intervention attempts have been criticized on methodological grounds. The present study resolves some of the methodological limitations of previous studies and also considers individual differences as potential explanations for the differing transfer effects across studies. We recruited intrinsically motivated participants and assessed their need for cognition (NFC; Cacioppo & Petty Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 42:116–131, 1982) and their implicit theories of intelligence (Dweck, 1999) prior to training. We assessed the efficacy of two WM interventions by comparing participants’ improvements on a battery of fluid intelligence tests against those of an active control group. We observed that transfer to a composite measure of fluid reasoning resulted from both WM interventions. In addition, we uncovered factors that contributed to training success, including motivation, need for cognition, preexisting ability, and implicit theories about intelligence.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Kundu et al. (2013) paid participants about $360 for study completion. Note, though, that as in Anguera et al.’s (2012) study, Kundu et al.’s participants showed n-back-related improvement in other outcome measures. Furthermore, the lack of differential group effects in the Raven’s test could also stem from the fact that their control task consisted of Tetris, a game that had previously resulted in training-related improvements in spatial ability itself (e.g., De Lisi & Wolford, 2002; Okagaki & Frensch, 1994; Terlecki, Newcombe, & Little, 2008).
Even though the present participants were not paid for participation, the 25 % attrition rate is comparable to or lower than the rates reported in other cognitive training studies. For example, Chooi and Thompson (2012) reported a drop-out rate of 28 %, and Redick et al. (2013) reported a drop-out rate of approximately 42 %.
Note that the DST has no parallel test version.
Note that the comparisons reported in this paragraph contrasted the entire training group (i.e., including all three interventions) with the groups that had dropped out, withdrawn, or just completed the paid pretest. Within the training group, we found no significant intervention group differences for any of those variables (on either the cognitive measures or the questionnaires).
Note that by taking the whole sample into account (N = 195; this sample size reflects all participants who completed all of the baseline assessments, including the paid pretest sample), the same factor structure emerged, explaining 45 % of the total variance, although the APM loaded equally on both factors.
The DST was included in a first exploratory factor analysis and revealed equal, weak loadings on both factors (<.3). In the reported analysis, DST was not included, and was also discarded from all further analyses involving composite scores.
Note that the p values remained significant if the data were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance with Time (pretest, posttest) as a within-subjects factor and Group (single n-back, dual n-back, control) as a between-subjects factor.
A slightly different interpretation is that those with malleable mindsets are better learners in both the active control and intervention groups, and thus improve on transfer tasks regardless of the intervention; this would also yield a placebo-like effect.
In the previous single n-back intervention, the improvement was 3.6 n-back levels (Jaeggi et al., 2010) versus 3.0 levels in the present study. However, note that the previous sample trained on a visuospatial version, whereas the present sample trained on an auditory version; thus, the improvements might not be entirely comparable.
Anguera, J. A., Bernard, J. A., Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Benson, B. L., Jennett, S., & Seidler, R. D. (2012). The effects of working memory resource depletion and training on sensorimotor adaptation. Behavioural Brain Research, 228, 107–115.
Arendasy, M., & Sommer, M. (2005). The effect of different types of perceptual manipulations on the dimensionality of automatically generated figural matrices. Intelligence, 33, 307–324. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2005.02.002
Ball, K., Berch, D. B., Helmers, K. F., Jobe, J. B., Leveck, M. D., Marsiske, M., & Willis, S. L. (2002). Effects of cognitive training interventions with older adults: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 2271–2281.
Barnett, S. M., & Ceci, S. J. (2002). When and where do we apply what we learn? A taxonomy for far transfer. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 612–637.
Basak, C., Boot, W. R., Voss, M. W., & Kramer, A. F. (2008). Can training in a real-time strategy video game attenuate cognitive decline in older adults? Psychology and Aging, 23, 765–777.
Bell, D. S., Harless, C. E., Higa, J. K., Bjork, E. L., Bjork, R. A., Bazargan, M., & Mangione, C. M. (2008). Knowledge retention after an online tutorial: A randomized educational experiment among resident physicians. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 23, 1164–1171.
Bennett, G. K., Seashore, H. G., & Wesman, A. G. (1972). Differential Aptitude Test: Space relations. New York: Psychological Corp.
Berger, F. R., Gupta, W. B., Berger, R. M., & Skinner, J. (1990). Air Force Officer Qualifying Test (AFOQT) Form P: Test manual (AFHRL-TR-89-56). Brooks Air Force Base, TX: Manpower and Personnel Division, Air Force Human Resources Laboratory.
Bergman Nutley, S., Soderqvist, S., Bryde, S., Thorell, L. B., Humphreys, K., & Klingberg, T. (2011). Gains in fluid intelligence after training non-verbal reasoning in 4-year-old children: A controlled, randomized study. Developmental Science, 14, 591–601.
Blackwell, L. S., Trzesniewski, K. H., & Dweck, C. S. (2007). Implicit theories of intelligence predict achievement across an adolescent transition: A longitudinal study and an intervention. Child Development, 78, 246–263. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.00995.x
Borella, E., Carretti, B., Riboldi, F., & de Beni, R. (2010). Working memory training in older adults evidence of transfer and maintenance effects. Psychology and Aging, 25, 767–778. doi:10.1037/A0020683
Burton, K. D., Lydon, J. E., D’Alessandro, D. U., & Koestner, R. (2006). The differential effects of intrinsic and identified motivation on well-being and performance: Prospective, experimental, and implicit approaches to self-determination theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 750–762.
Buschkuehl, M., & Jaeggi, S. M. (2010). Improving intelligence: A literature review. Swiss Medical Weekly, 140, 266–272.
Buschkuehl, M., Jaeggi, S. M., Hutchison, S., Perrig-Chiello, P., Dapp, C., Muller, M., & Perrig, W. J. (2008). Impact of working memory training on memory performance in old-old adults. Psychology and Aging, 23, 743–753.
Cacioppo, J. T., & Petty, R. E. (1982). The need for cognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 116–131.
Carretti, B., Borella, E., Zavagnin, M., & de Beni, R. (2013). Gains in language comprehension relating to working memory training in healthy older adults. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 28, 539–546. doi:10.1002/gps.3859
Cattell, R. B., & Cattell, A. K. S. (1963). Test of “g”: Culture Fair Scale 3. Champaign: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing.
Cepeda, N. J., Pashler, H., Vul, E., Wixted, J. T., & Rohrer, D. (2006). Distributed practice in verbal recall tasks: A review and quantitative synthesis. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 354–380. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.132.3.354
Chein, J. M., & Morrison, A. B. (2010). Expanding the mind’s workspace: Training and transfer effects with a complex working memory span task. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17, 193–199. doi:10.3758/PBR.17.2.193
Chooi, W. T., & Thompson, L. A. (2012). Working memory training does not improve intelligence in healthy young adults. Intelligence, 40, 531–542. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2012.07.004
Craik, F. I. M., Winocur, G., Palmer, H., Binns, M. A., Edwards, M., Bridges, K., & Stuss, D. T. (2007). Cognitive rehabilitation in the elderly: Effects on memory. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13, 132–142. doi:10.1017/S1355617707070166
Dahlin, E., Neely, A. S., Larsson, A., Backman, L., & Nyberg, L. (2008). Transfer of learning after updating training mediated by the striatum. Science, 320, 1510–1512.
De Lisi, R., & Wolford, J. L. (2002). Improving children’s mental rotation accuracy with computer game playing. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 163, 272–282. doi:10.1080/00221320209598683
Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 627–668. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.125.6.627. disc. 692–700.
Duckworth, A. L., Peterson, C., Matthews, M. D., & Kelly, D. R. (2007). Grit: Perseverance and passion for long-term goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 1087–1101. doi:10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2067
Dweck, C. S. (1999). Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality, and development. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.
Ekstrom, R. B., French, J. W., Harmon, H. H., & Derman, D. (1976). ETS Kit of Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests. Princeton: Educational Testing Service.
Engle, R. W., Kane, M. J., & Tuholski, S. W. (1999). Individual differences in working memory capacity and what they tell us about controlled attention, general fluid intelligence, and functions of the prefrontal cortex. In A. Miyake & P. Shah (Eds.), Models of working memory: Mechanisms of active maintenance and executive control (pp. 102–134). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fabrigar, L. R., Wegener, D. T., MacCallum, R. C., & Strahan, E. J. (1999). Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research. Psychological Methods, 4, 272–299.
Freund, P. A., & Hotting, H. (2011). How to get really smart: Modeling retest and training effects in ability testing using computer-generated figural matrix items. Intelligence, 39, 233–243. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2011.02.009
García-Madruga, J. A., Elosúa, M. R., Gil, L., Gómez-Veiga, I., Vila, J. Ó., Orjales, I., & Duque, G. (2013). Reading comprehension and working memory’s executive processes: An intervention study in primary school students. Reading Research Quarterly, 48, 155–174.
Grant, H., & Dweck, C. S. (2003). Clarifying achievement goals and their impact. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 541–553.
Haskell, W. L., Lee, I. M., Pate, R. R., Powell, K. E., Blair, S. N., Franklin, B. A., & Bauman, A. (2007). Physical activity and public health—Updated recommendation for adults from the American college of sports medicine and the American heart association. Circulation, 116, 1081–1093. doi:10.1161/Circulationaha.107.185649
Holmes, J., Gathercole, S. E., & Dunning, D. L. (2009). Adaptive training leads to sustained enhancement of poor working memory in children. Developmental Science, 12, F9–F15. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7687.2009.00848.x
Holmes, J., Gathercole, S. E., Place, M., Dunning, D. L., Hilton, K. A., & Elliott, J. G. (2010). Working memory deficits can be overcome: Impacts of training and medication on working memory in children with ADHD. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24, 827–836.
Hong, Y. Y., Chiu, C. Y., Dweck, C. S., Lin, D. M. S., & Wan, W. (1999). Implicit theories, attributions, and coping: A meaning system approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 588–599.
Hossiep, R., Turck, D., & Hasella, M. (1999). Bochumer Matrizentest: BOMAT advanced. Göttingen: Hogrefe.
Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Jonides, J., & Perrig, W. J. (2008). Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 6829–6833. doi:10.1073/pnas.0801268105
Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Jonides, J., & Shah, P. (2011a). Short- and long-term benefits of cognitive training. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 10081–10086. doi:10.1073/pnas.1103228108
Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Jonides, J., & Shah, P. (2011b). Working memory training in typically developing children and children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence for plasticity in executive control processes. Paper presented at the Eighteenth Annual Cognitive Neuroscience Society Meeting, San Francisco, CA.
Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Perrig, W. J., & Meier, B. (2010). The concurrent validity of the N-back task as a working memory measure. Memory, 18, 394–412.
Jaeggi, S. M., Seewer, R., Nirkko, A. C., Eckstein, D., Schroth, G., Groner, R., & Gutbrod, K. (2003). Does excessive memory load attenuate activation in the prefrontal cortex? Load-dependent processing in single and dual tasks: Functional magnetic resonance imaging study. NeuroImage, 19, 210–225.
Jaeggi, S. M., Studer-Luethi, B., Buschkuehl, M., Su, Y.-F., Jonides, J., & Perrig, W. J. (2010). The relationship between n-back performance and matrix reasoning—Implications for training and transfer. Intelligence, 38, 625–635.
Jausovec, N., & Jausovec, K. (2012). Working memory training: Improving intelligence—Changing brain activity. Brain and Cognition, 79, 96–106. doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2012.02.007
Johnson, W., te Nijenhuis, J., & Bouchard, T. J. (2008). Still just 1 g: Consistent results from five test batteries. Intelligence, 36, 81–95. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2007.06.001
Jonides, J., Lewis, R. L., Nee, D. E., Lustig, C., Berman, M. G., & Moore, K. S. (2008). The mind and brain of short-term memory. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 193–224. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093615
Kane, M. J., Hambrick, D. Z., Tuholski, S. W., Wilhelm, O., Payne, T. W., & Engle, R. W. (2004). The generality of working memory capacity: A latent-variable approach to verbal and visuospatial memory span and reasoning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133, 189–217. doi:10.1037/0096-34220.127.116.11
Kane, M. J., & Miyake, T. M. (2007). The validity of “conceptual span” as a measure of working memory capacity. Memory & Cognition, 35, 1136–1150. doi:10.3758/BF03193484
Klauer, K. J., Willmes, K., & Phye, G. D. (2002). Inducing inductive reasoning: Does it transfer to fluid intelligence? Contemporary Educational Psychology, 27, 1-25.
Klingberg, T., Fernell, E., Olesen, P. J., Johnson, M., Gustafsson, P., Dahlstrom, K., & Westerberg, H. (2005). Computerized training of working memory in children with ADHD—A randomized, controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 177–186.
Klingberg, T., Forssberg, H., & Westerberg, H. (2002). Training of working memory in children with ADHD. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 24, 781–791.
Kundu, B., Sutterer, D. W., Emrich, S. M., & Postle, B. R. (2013). Strengthened effective connectivity underlies transfer of working memory training to tests of short-term memory and attention. Journal of Neuroscience, 33, 8705–8715. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5565-12.2013
Li, S. C., Schmiedek, F., Huxhold, O., Rocke, C., Smith, J., & Lindenberger, U. (2008). Working memory plasticity in old age: Practice gain, transfer, and maintenance. Psychology and Aging, 23, 731–742.
Loosli, S. V., Buschkuehl, M., Perrig, W. J., & Jaeggi, S. M. (2012). Working memory training improves reading processes in typically developing children. Child Neuropsychology, 18, 62–78. doi:10.1080/09297049.2011.575772
Lustig, C., Shah, P., Seidler, R., & Reuter-Lorenz, P. A. (2009). Aging, training, and the brain: A review and future directions. Neuropsychological Review, 19, 504–522. doi:10.1007/s11065-009-9119-9
Matzen, L. E., Benz, Z. O., Dixon, K. R., Posey, J., Kroger, J. K., & Speed, A. E. (2010). Recreating Raven’s: Software for systematically generating large numbers of Raven-like matrix problems with normed properties. Behavior Research Methods, 42, 525–541. doi:10.3758/BRM.42.2.525
Mayo, E. (1933). The human problems of an industrial civilization. New York: Macmillan.
McVay, J. C., & Kane, M. J. (2009). Conducting the train of thought: Working memory capacity, goal neglect, and mind wandering in an executive-control task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 35, 196–204. doi:10.1037/a0014104
Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Rettinger, D. A., Shah, P., & Hegarty, M. (2001). How are visuospatial working memory, executive functioning, and spatial abilities related? A latent-variable analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130, 621–640. doi:10.1037/0096-3418.104.22.1681
Morrison, A. B., & Chein, J. M. (2011). Does working memory training work? The promise and challenges of enhancing cognition by training working memory. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 18, 46–60. doi:10.3758/s13423-010-0034-0
Mueller, C. M., & Dweck, C. S. (1998). Praise for intelligence can undermine children’s motivation and performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 33–52.
Nystrom, L. E., Braver, T. S., Sabb, F. W., Delgado, M. R., Noll, D. C., & Cohen, J. D. (2000). Working memory for letters, shapes, and locations: fMRI evidence against stimulus-based regional organization in human prefrontal cortex. NeuroImage, 11, 424–446.
Okagaki, L., & Frensch, P. A. (1994). Effects of video game playing on measures of spatial performance: Gender effects in late adolescence. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 15, 33–58.
Owen, A. M., Hampshire, A., Grahn, J. A., Stenton, R., Dajani, S., Burns, A. S., & Ballard, C. G. (2010). Putting brain training to the test. Nature, 465, 775–778.
Owen, A. M., McMillan, K. M., Laird, A. R., & Bullmore, E. (2005). N-back working memory paradigm: A meta-analysis of normative functional neuroimaging studies. Human Brain Mapping, 25, 46–59.
Pickering, S. (Ed.). (2006). Working memory and education. Oxford: Elsevier.
Rabipour, S., & Raz, A. (2012). Training the brain: Fact and fad in cognitive and behavioral remediation. Brain and Cognition, 79, 159–179. doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2012.02.006
Raven, J. C. (1990). Advanced Progressive Matrices: Sets I, II. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Redick, T. S., Shipstead, Z., Harrison, T. L., Hicks, K. L., Fried, D., Hambrick, D. Z., & Engle, R. W. (2013). No evidence of intelligence improvement after working memory training: A randomized, placebo-controlled study. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142, 359–379. doi:10.1037/a0029082
Rudebeck, S. R., Bor, D., Ormond, A., O’Reilly, J. X., & Lee, A. C. (2012). A potential spatial working memory training task to improve both episodic memory and fluid intelligence. PLoS ONE, 7, e50431. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050431
Rueda, M. R., Rothbart, M. K., McCandliss, B. D., Saccomanno, L., ∓ Posner, M. I. (2005). Training, maturation, and genetic influences on the development of executive attention. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(41), 14931-14936.
Salminen, T., Strobach, T., & Schubert, T. (2012). On the impacts of working memory training on executive functioning. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 166. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2012.00166
Schmiedek, F., Lövdén, M., & Lindenberger, U. (2010). Hundred days of cognitive training enhance broad cognitive abilities in adulthood: Findings from the COGITO study. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 2, 27. doi:10.3389/fnagi.2010.00027
Schweizer, S., Hampshire, A., & Dalgleish, T. (2011). Extending brain-training to the affective domain: Increasing cognitive and affective executive control through emotional working memory training. PLoS ONE, 6, e24372. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024372
Seidler, R. D., Bernard, J. A., Buschkuehl, M., Jaeggi, S., Jonides, J., & Humfleet, J. (2010). Cognitive training as an intervention to improve driving ability in the older adult (Technical Report No. M-CASTL 2010-01). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.
Shah, P., Buschkuehl, M., Jaeggi, S. M., & Jonides, J. (2012). Cognitive Training for ADHD: The Importance of Individual Differences. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 1, 204–205.
Shah, P., & Miyake, A. (1999). Models of working memory: An introduction. In A. Miyake & P. Shah (Eds.), Models of working memory: Mechanism of active maintenance and executive control (pp. 1–26). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Shipstead, Z., Redick, T. S., & Engle, R. W. (2012). Is working memory training effective? Psychological Bulletin, 138, 628–654. doi:10.1037/a0027473
Stephenson, C. L., & Halpern, D. F. (2013). Improved matrix reasoning is limited to training on tasks with a visuospatial component. Intelligence, 41, 341–357.
Studer-Luethi, B., Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., & Perrig, W. J. (2012). Influence of neurotisicm and conscientiousness on working memory training outcome. Personality and Individual Differences, 53(1), 44-49. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2012.02.012
Takeuchi, H., Taki, Y., Nouchi, R., Hashizume, H., Sekiguchi, A., Kotozaki, Y., & Kawashima, R. (2013). Effects of working memory training on functional connectivity and cerebral blood flow during rest. Cortex, 49, 2106–2125. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2012.09.007
Terlecki, M. S., Newcombe, N. S., & Little, M. (2008). Durable and generalized effects of spatial experience on mental rotation: Gender differences in growth patterns. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22, 996–1013. doi:10.1002/Acp.1420
Thompson, T. W., Waskom, M. L., Garel, K. L., Cardenas-Iniguez, C., Reynolds, G. O., Winter, R., & Gabrieli, J. D. (2013). Failure of working memory training to enhance cognition or intelligence. PLoS ONE, 8, e63614. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063614
Thorell, L. B., Lindqvist, S., Bergman Nutley, S., Bohlin, G., & Klingberg, T. (2009). Training and transfer effects of executive functions in preschool children. Developmental Science, 12, 106–113.
Tomic, W., & Klauer, K. J. (1996). On the effects of training inductive reasoning: How far does it transfer and how long do the effects persist? European Journal of Psychology of Education, 11, 283–299.
Van der Molen, M. J., Van Luit, J. E. H., Van der Molen, M. W., Klugkist, I., & Jongmans, M. J. (2010). Effectiveness of a computerised working memory training in adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 54, 433–447.
Verhaeghen, P., Marcoen, A., & Goossens, L. (1992). Improving memory performance in the aged through mnemonic training: A meta-analytic study. Psychology and Aging, 7, 242–251. doi:10.1037/0882-7922.214.171.124
von Bastian, C. C., & Oberauer, K. (2013). Distinct transfer effects of training different facets of working memory capacity. Journal of Memory and Language, 69, 36–58. doi:10.1016/j.jml.2013.02.002
Wechsler, D. (1997). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (3rd ed.). San Antonio: Psychological Corp.
Whisman, M. A. (1990). The efficacy of booster maintenance sessions in behavior therapy: Review and methodological critique. Clinical Psychology Review, 10, 155–170.
Wiley, J., & Jarosz, A. F. (2012). How working memory capacity affects problem solving. Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 56, 185–227.
Witt, M. (2011). School based working memory training: Preliminary finding of improvement in children’s mathematical performance. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 7, 7–15. doi:10.2478/v10053-008-0083-3
Wright, R., Thompson, W. L., Ganis, G., Newcombe, N. S., & Kosslyn, S. M. (2008). Training generalized spatial skills. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15, 763–771. doi:10.3758/PBR.15.4.763
Zelinski, E. M. (2009). Far transfer in cognitive training of older adults. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 27, 455–471.
Zhao, X., Wang, Y. X., Liu, D. W., & Zhou, R. L. (2011). Effect of updating training on fluid intelligence in children. Chinese Science Bulletin, 56, 2202–2205.
Zinke, K., Zeintl, M., Eschen, A., Herzog, C., & Kliegel, M. (2011). Potentials and limits of plasticity induced by working memory training in old-old age. Gerontology, 58, 79–87. doi:10.1159/000324240
Zinke, K., Zeintl, M., Rose, N. S., Putzmann, J., Pydde, A., & Kliegel, M. (2013). Working memory training and transfer in older adults: Effects of age, baseline performance, and training gains. Developmental Psychology. doi:10.1037/a0032982
This work has been funded by grants from the ONR and the NSF to J.J., and by a grant from the IES to P.S. We thank our research assistants, especially Chris Cargill, for their invaluable help with data collection. We also thank Michael Kane, Bill Thompson, and Stephen Kosslyn for letting us use their material for the verbal analogies task.
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
(DOC 140 kb)
About this article
Cite this article
Jaeggi, S.M., Buschkuehl, M., Shah, P. et al. The role of individual differences in cognitive training and transfer. Mem Cogn 42, 464–480 (2014). https://doi.org/10.3758/s13421-013-0364-z
- Working memory
- Skill acquisition
- Individual differences