Learning & Behavior

, Volume 45, Issue 4, pp 378–389 | Cite as

Integrating Tinbergen's inquiries: Mimicry and play in humans and other social mammals

Article

Abstract

Visual signals convey emotions and intentions between individuals. Darwin underlined that human facial expressions represent a shared heritage between our species and many other social mammals. Social play is a fertile field to examine the role and the potential communicative function of facial expressions. The relaxed open-mouth (or play face) is a context-specific playful expression, which is widespread in human and non-human mammals. Here, we focus on playful communication by applying Tinbergen’s four areas of inquiry: proximate causation, ontogeny, function, and evolution. First of all we explore mimicry by focusing on its neural substrates and factors of modulation within playful and non-playful context (proximate causation). Play face is one of the earliest facial expressions to appear and be mimicked in neonates. The motor resonance between infants and their caregivers is essential later in life when individuals begin to engage in increasingly complex social interactions, including play (ontogeny). The success of a playful session can be evaluated by its duration in time. Mirroring facial expressions prolongs the session by favoring individuals to fine-tune their own motor sequences accordingly (function). Finally, through a comparative approach we also demonstrate that the elements constituting play communication and mimicry are sensitive to the quality of interindividual relationships of a species, thus reflecting the nature of its social network and style (evolution). In conclusion, our goal is to integrate Tinbergen’s four areas of ethological inquiry to provide a broader framework regarding the importance of communication and mimicry in the play domain of humans and other social mammals.

Keywords

Emotional contagion Ethological perspective Seals Dogs Monkeys Apes Homo sapiens 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We wish to thank Lance Miller and Alex de Voogt for organizing the Leading Edge Workshop entitled "The Evolutionary and Psychological Significance of Play" and Lou Shomette and the Play Psychonomic Society for supporting and sponsoring this event. We wish to thank W. Pecorino for his important clarifying input in discussing results. This contribution is dedicated to the memory of Stanley A. Kuczaj, who studied play through Tinbergen's lens.

References

  1. Adams, M. J., Majolo, B., Ostner, J., Schülke, O., De Marco, A., Thierry, B., . . . Weiss, A. (2015). Personality structure and social style in macaques. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109, 338–353. doi: 10.1037/pspp0000041
  2. Anderson, D. J., & Adolphs, R. (2014). A framework for studying emotions across species. Cell, 157, 187–200. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2014.03.003 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Anisfeld, M., Turkewitz, G., Rose, S. A., Rosenberg, F. R., Sheiber, F. J., Couturier-Fagan, D. A., . . . Sommer, I. (2001). No compelling evidence that newborns imitate oral gestures. Infancy, 2, 111–122.Google Scholar
  4. Bekoff, M., & Allen, C. (1998). Intentional communication and social play: how and why animals negotiate and agree to play. Animal play: Evolutionary, comparative, and ecological perspectives, 97–114.Google Scholar
  5. Berman, C. M. (1982). The ontogeny of social relationships with group companions among free-ranging infant rhesus monkeys II. Differentiation and attractiveness. Animal Behaviour, 30, 163–170. doi: 10.1016/S0003-3472(82)80251-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berman, C. M., & Kapsalis, E. (1999). Development of kin bias among rhesus monkeys: Maternal transmission or individual learning? Animal Behaviour, 58, 883–894. doi: 10.1006/anbe.1999.1221 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bos, P. A., Jap-Tjong, N., Spencer, H., & Hofman, D. (2016). Social context modulates facial imitation of children’s emotional expressions. PloS ONE, 11, article number: e0167991. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0167991
  8. Bourgeois, P., & Hess, U. (2008). The impact of social context on mimicry. Biological Psychology, 77, 343–352. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2007.11.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bryant, G. A., Fessler, D. M. T., Fusaroli, R., Clint, E., Aarøef, L., … .Zhoup, Y. (2016). Detecting affiliation in colaughter across 24 societies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113, 4682–4687. doi:  10.1073/pnas.1524993113
  10. Burghardt, G. M. (2005). The genesis of animal play: Testing the limits. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  11. Butovskaya, M. (2004). Social space and degrees of freedom. In B. Thierry, M. Singh, & W. Kaumanns (Eds.), Macaque societies: A model for the study of social organization (pp. 182–185). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Byrne, R. W. (1994). The evolution of intelligence. In P. J. B. Slater & T. R. Halliday (Eds.), Behavior and evolution (pp. 223–264). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (1995). Use of social information in the problem solving of orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and human children (Homo sapiens). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 109, 308–320. doi: 10.1037/0735-7036.109.3.308 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Casile, A., Caggiano, V., & Ferrari, P. F. (2011). The mirror neuron system: a fresh view. The Neuroscientist, 17, 5. doi: 10.1177/1073858410392239 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chartrand, T. L., Maddux, W. W., & Lakin, J. L. (2005). Beyond the perception-behavior link: The ubiquitous utility and motivational moderators of nonconscious mimicry. The New Unconscious, 334–361.Google Scholar
  16. Chauvin, C., & Berman, C. M. (2004). 10 Intergenerational transmission of behavior. In B. Thierry, M. Singh, & W. Kaumanns (Eds.), Macaque societies: A model for the study of social organization (pp. 209–230). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Ciani, F., Dall'Olio, S., Stanyon, R., & Palagi, E. (2012). Social tolerance and adult play in macaque societies: A comparison with different human cultures. Animal Behaviour, 84, 1313–1322. doi: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2012.09.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Davila-Ross, M., Menzler, S., & Zimmermann, E. (2008). Rapid facial mimicry in orangutan play. Biology Letters, 4, 27–30. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2007.0535 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Davila-Ross, M., Allcock, B., Thomas, C., & Bard, K. A. (2011). Aping expressions? Chimpanzees produce distinct laugh types when responding to laughter of others. Emotion, 11, 1013. doi: 10.1037/a0022594 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Decety, J., & Svetlova, M. (2012). Putting together phylogenetic and ontogenetic perspectives on empathy. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 2, 1–24. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2011.05.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Delson, E. (1980). Fossil macaques, phyletic relationships and a scenario of deployment. The Macaques: Studies in ecology, behavior and evolution, 10–30.Google Scholar
  22. Demaria, C., & Thierry, B. (2001). A comparative study of reconciliation in rhesus and Tonkean macaques. Behaviour, 138, 397–410. doi: 10.1163/15685390152032514 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Demuru, E., Ferrari, P. F., & Palagi, E. (2015). Emotionality and intentionality in bonobo playful communication. Animal Cognition, 18, 333–344. doi: 10.1007/s10071-014-0804-6 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Dezecache, G., & Dunbar, R. I. M. (2012). Sharing the joke: The size of natural laughter groups. Evolution and Human Behavior, 33, 775–779. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2012.11.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dezecache, G., Jacob, P., & Grèzes, J. (2015). Emotional contagion: Its scope and limits. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 19, 297–299. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2015.03.011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Dimberg, U., & Thunberg, M. (1998). Rapid facial reactions to emotional facial expressions. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 39, 39–45. doi: 10.1111/1467-9450.00054 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. di Pellegrino, G., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., Gallese, V., & Rizzolatti, G. (1992). Understanding motor events: A neurophysiological study. Experimental Brain Research, 91, 176–180. doi: 10.1007/BF00230027 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Duffy, K. A., & Chartrand, T. L. (2015). Mimicry: causes and consequences. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 3, 112–116. doi: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2015.03.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fagen, R. A. (1981). Animal play behavior. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Fawcett, C., & Liszkowski, U. (2012). Mimicry and play initiation in 18-month-old infants. Infant Behavior and Development, 35, 689–696. doi: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2012.07.014 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Feldman, R. (2007). Parent–infant synchrony and the construction of shared timing; physiological precursors, developmental outcomes, and risk conditions. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 329–354. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01701.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Feldman, R. (2010). The relational basis of adolescent adjustment: Trajectories of mother child interactive behaviors from infancy to adolescence shape adolescents’ adaptation. Attachment and Human Development, 12, 173–92. doi: 10.1080/14616730903282472 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Ferrari, P. F., Visalberghi, E., Paukner, A., Fogassi, L., Ruggiero, A., & Suomi, S. J. (2006). Neonatal imitation in rhesus macaques. PLoS Biology, 4, article number: e302. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040302
  34. Ferrari, P. F., Bonini, L., & Fogassi, L. (2009). From monkey mirror neurons to primate behaviours: Possible ‘direct’and ‘indirect’pathways. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 364, 2311–2323. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2009.0062 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Flack, W. (2006). Peripheral feedback effects of facial expressions, bodily postures, and vocal expressions on emotional feelings. Cognition & Emotion, 20, 177–195. doi: 10.1080/02699930500359617 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gallese, V., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., & Rizzolatti, G. (1996). Action recognition in the premotor cortex. Brain, 119, 593–609. doi: 10.1093/brain/119.2.593 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Gallese, V., Keysers, C., & Rizzolatti, G. (2004). A unifying view of the basis of social cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8, 396–403. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2004.07.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gervais, M., & Wilson, D. S. (2005). The evolutions and functions of laughter and humor: A synthetic approach. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 80, 395–430. doi: 10.1086/498281 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gibson, K. R. (1977). Brain structure and intelligence in macaques and human infants from a Piagetian perspective. Primate biosocial development: Biological, social, and ecological determinants, 113–157.Google Scholar
  40. Gottlieb, G. (2007). Probabilistic epigenesis. Developmental Science, 10, 1–11. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2007.00556.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gray, P. (2009). Play as a foundation for hunter-gatherer social existence. American Journal of Play, 1, 476–522.Google Scholar
  42. Gray, P. (2012). The value of a play-filled childhood in development of the hunter-gatherer individual. In D. Narvaez, J. Panksepp, A. Shore, & T. Gleason (Eds.), Human nature, early experience and the environment of evolutionary adaptedness. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Harcourt, A. H., & Stewart, K. J. (1987). The influence of help in contests on dominance rank in primates: Hints from gorillas. Animal Behaviour, 35, 182–190. doi: 10.1016/S0003-3472(87)80223-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hatfield, E., Cacioppo, J. T., & Rapson, R. L. (1994). Emotional contagion: Cambridge studies in emotion and social interaction. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Errors-in-Variables Regression Model When the Variances of the Measurement Errors Vary Between the Observations. Statistics in Medicine, 21, 1089–1101.Google Scholar
  45. Hecht, J., Miklósi, Á., & Gácsi, M. (2012). Behavioral assessment and owner perceptions of behaviors associated with guilt in dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 139, 134–142. doi: 10.1016/j.applanim.2012.02.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hess, U., & Fischer, A. (2013). Emotional mimicry as social regulation. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 17, 142–157. doi: 10.1177/1088868312472607 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Hofman, D., Bos, P. A., Schutter, D. J., & van Honk, J. (2012). Fairness modulates non-conscious facial mimicry in women. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 279, 3535–3539. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2012.0694 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Horowitz, A. (2009). Attention to attention in domestic dog (Canis familiaris) dyadic play. Animal Cognition, 12, 107–118. doi: 10.1007/s10071-008-0175-y CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Isomura, T., & Nakano, T. (2016). Automatic facial mimicry in response to dynamic emotional stimuli in five-month-old infants. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 283, 20161948. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2016.1948 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Jacobson, S. W. (1979). Matching behavior in the young infant. Child Development, 50, 425–430. doi: 10.2307/1129418 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Jones, S. S. (2009). The development of imitation in infancy. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B: Biological Sciences, 364, 2325–2335. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2009.0045 CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Kaburu, S. S. K., Paukner, A., Simpson, E. A., Suomi, S. J., & Ferrari, P. F. (2016). Neonatal imitation predicts infant rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) social and anxiety-related behaviours at one year. Scientific Reports 6, article number: 34997. doi: 10.1038/srep34997
  53. Lakin, J. L., Jefferis, V. E., Cheng, C. M., & Chartrand, T. L. (2003). The chameleon effect as social glue: Evidence for the evolutionary significance of nonconscious mimicry. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 27, 145–162. doi: 10.1023/A:1025389814290 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Llamazares-Martín, C., Scopa, C., Guillén-Salazar, F., & Palagi, E. (2017). Relaxed open mouth reciprocity favours playful contacts in South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens). (published online) https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.04.007
  55. Mancini, G., & Palagi, E. (2009). Play and social dynamics in a captive herd of gelada baboons (Theropithecus gelada). Behavioural Processes, 82, 286–292. doi: 10.1016/j.beproc.2009.07.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Maestripieri, D. (1997). Gestural communication in macaques: Usage and meaning of nonvocal signals. Evolution of Communication, 1, 193–222. doi: 10.1075/eoc.1.2.03mae CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mancini, G., Ferrari, P. F., & Palagi, E. (2013a). Rapid facial mimicry in geladas. Scientific Reports, 3, 1527. doi: 10.1038/srep01527 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Mancini, G., Ferrari, P.F., & Palagi, E. (2013b). In play we trust. Rapid facial mimicry predicts the duration of playful interactions in geladas. PLoS ONE 8, article number:e66481. doi:  10.1371/journal.pone.0066481
  59. Mehu, M., Grammer, K., & Dunbar, R. I. (2007). Smiles when sharing. Evolution and Human Behavior, 28, 415–422. doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2007.05.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Meltzoff, A. N., & Moore, M. K. (1977). Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates. Science, 198, 75–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Meltzoff, A. N., & Moore, M. K. (1983). Newborn infants imitate adult facial gestures. Child Development, 702–709. doi:10.2307/1130058Google Scholar
  62. Meltzoff, A. N., & Moore, M. K. (1989). Imitation in newborn infants: Exploring the range of gestures imitated and the underlying mechanisms. Developmental Psychology, 25, 954. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.25.6.954 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Meltzoff, A. N., & Decety, J. (2003). What imitation tells us about social cognition: A rapprochement between developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 358, 491–500. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2002.1261 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Micheletta, J., Engelhardt, A., Matthews, L. E. E., Agil, M., & Waller, B. M. (2013). Multi component and multimodal lip smacking in crested macaques (Macaca nigra). American Journal of Primatology, 75, 763–773. doi: 10.1002/ajp.22105 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Morin, E. (1977). La methode. 1. La nature de la nature. Paris: Seuil.Google Scholar
  66. Morrison, H., & Kuhn, D. (1983). Cognitive aspects of preschoolers’ peer imitation in a play situation. Child Development, 54, 1054–1063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Müller, C. A., Schmitt, K., Barber, A. L. A., & Huber, L. (2015). Dogs can discriminate emotional expressions of human faces. Current Biology, 25, 1–5. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2014.12.055 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Murata, A., Saito, H., Schug, J., Ogawa, K., & Kameda, T. (2016). Spontaneous facial mimicry is enhanced by the goal of inferring emotional states: evidence for moderation of “automatic” mimicry by higher cognitive processes. PloS ONE, 11, article number: e0153128. doi:  10.1371/journal.pone.0153128
  69. Myowa-Yamakoshi, M., Tomonaga, M., Tanaka, M., & Matsuzawa, T. (2004). Imitation in neonatal chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Developmental Science, 7, 437–442. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2004.00364.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Nagell, K., Olguin, R. S., & Tomasello, M. (1993). Processes of social learning in the tool use of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and human children (Homo sapiens). Journal of Comparative. Google Scholar
  71. Norscia, I., & Palagi, E. (2011). Yawn contagion and empathy in Homo sapiens. PloS ONE, 6, article number: e28472. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028472
  72. Nunes, S., Muecke, E. M., Sanchez, Z., Hoffmeier, R. R., & Lancaster, L. T. (2004). Play behavior and motor development in juvenile Belding’s ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 56, 97–105. doi: 10.1007/s00265-004-0765-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Palagi, E. (2006). Social play in bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Implications for natural social systems and interindividual relationships. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 129, 418–426. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.20289 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Palagi, E. (2008). Sharing the motivation to play: The use of signals in adult bonobos. Animal Behaviour, 75, 887–896. doi: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2007.07.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Palagi, E., Antonacci, D., & Cordoni, G. (2007). Fine-tuning of social play in juvenile lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Developmental Psychobiology, 49, 433–445. doi: 10.1002/dev.20219 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Palagi, E., Leone, A., Mancini, G., & Ferrari, P. F. (2009). Contagious yawning in gelada baboons as a possible expression of empathy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106, 19262–19267. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0910891106 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Palagi, E., & Mancini, G. (2011). Playing with the face: playful facial “chattering” and signal modulation in a monkey species (Theropithecus gelada). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 125, 11–21. doi: 10.1037/a0020869 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Palagi, E., Nicotra, V., & Cordoni, G. (2015). Rapid mimicry and emotional contagion in domestic dogs. Royal Society Open Science, 2, 150505. doi: 10.1098/rsos.150505 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. Palagi, E., Burghardt, G. M., Smuts, B., Cordoni, G., Dall'Olio, S., Fouts, H. N., . . . Pellis S. M. (2016). Rough-and-tumble play as a window on animal communication. Biological Reviews, 91, 311–327. doi: 10.1111/brv.12172
  80. Palagi, E., Cordoni, G., Demuru, E., & Bekoff, M. (2016). Fair play and its connection with social tolerance, reciprocity and the ethology of peace. Behaviour, 153, 1195–1216. doi: 10.1163/1568539X-00003336 Google Scholar
  81. Pallante, V., Stanyon, R., & Palagi, E. (2016). Agonistic support towards victims buffers aggression in geladas (Theropithecus gelada). Behaviour, 153, 1217–1243. doi: 10.1163/1568539X-00003369 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Parr, L. A., Waller, B. M., & Fugate, J. (2005). Emotional communication in primates: Implications for neurobiology. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 15, 716–720. doi: 10.1016/j.conb.2005.10.017 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Pellegrini, A. D. (2009). The role of play in human development. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pellegrini, A. D. (2011). The Oxford handbook of the development of play. New York, USA: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  85. Petit, O., Bertrand, F., & Thierry, B. (2008). Social play in crested and Japanese macaques: Testing the covariation hypothesis. Developmental Psychobiology, 50, 399–407. doi: 10.1002/dev.20305 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Power, T. G. (2000). Play and exploration in children and animals. Mahwah: L. Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  87. Preston, S. D., & deWaal, F. B. M. (2002). Empathy: its ultimate and proximate bases. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 25, 1–71. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X02000018 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Preuschoft, S. (2004). Power and communication. In B. Thierry, M. Singh, & W. Kaumanns (Eds.), Macaque societies: A model for the study of social organization (pp. 56–60). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  89. Provine, R. R. (2013). Laughing, grooming, and pub science. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 9–10. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2012.11.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Quaranta, A., Siniscalchi, M., & Vallortigara, G. (2007). Asymmetric tail wagging responses by dogs to different emotive stimuli. Current Biology, 17, R199–R201. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2007.02.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Ray, E., & Heyes, C. (2011). Imitation in infancy: The wealth of the stimulus. Developmental Science, 14, 92–105. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2010.00961.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Reinhart, C. J., Pellis, V. C., Thierry, B., Gauthier, C. A., VanderLaan, D. P., Vasey, P. L., & Pellis, S. M. (2010). Targets and tactics of play fighting: Competitive versus cooperative styles of play in Japanese and Tonkean macaques. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 23, 166–200.Google Scholar
  93. Rizzolatti, G., Fadiga, L., Gallese, V., & Fogassi, L. (1996). Premotor cortex and the recognition of motor actions. Cognitive Brain Research, 3, 131–141. doi: 10.1016/0926-6410(95)00038-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Rizzolatti, G., Fadiga, L., Matelli, M., Bettinardi, V., Paulesu, E., Perani, D., & Fazio, F. (1996). Localization of grasp representations in humans by PET: 1. Observation versus execution. Experimental Brain Research, 111, 246–252. doi: 10.1007/BF00227301
  95. Rooney, N. J., Bradshaw, J. W. S., & Robinson, I. H. (2001). Do dogs respond to play signals given by humans? Animal Behaviour, 61, 715–722. doi: 10.1006/anbe.2000.1661 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Scopa, C., & Palagi, E. (2016). Mimic me while playing! Social tolerance and rapid facial mimicry in macaques (Macaca tonkeana and Macaca fuscata). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 130, 153–161. doi: 10.1037/com0000028 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Seibt, B., Mühlberger, A., Likowski, K. U., & Weyers, P. (2015). Facial mimicry in its social setting. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1122. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01122 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Smuts, B. (2014). Social behavior among companion dogs with an emphasis on play. In J. Kaminski, & S. Marshall-Pescini (Eds.), The social dog: Behavior and cognition (pp. 105–130).Google Scholar
  99. Stepper, S., & Strack, F. (1993). Proprioceptive determinants of emotional and non emotional feelings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 211. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.64.2.211 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Stern, D. N. (1985). The interpersonal world of the infant. A view from psychoanalysis and developmental psychology. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  101. Thelen, E., & Smith, L. B. (1994). A dynamic systems approach to the development of cognition and action. Cambridge: Bradford Books/MIT Press.Google Scholar
  102. Thierry, B. (1985). Patterns of agonistic interactions in three species of macaque (Macaca mulatta, M. fascicularis, M. tonkeana). Aggressive Behavior, 11, 223–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Thierry, B. (2000). Covariation of conflict management patterns across macaque species. In F. Aureli & F. B. M. de Waal (Eds.), Natural conflict resolution (pp. 106–128). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  104. Thierry, B. (2004). Social epigenesis. In B. Thierry, M. Singh, & W. Kaufmanns (Eds.), Macaque societies: A model for the study of social organization (pp. 267–290). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  105. Thierry, B. (2007). Unity in diversity: Lessons from macaque societies. Evolutionary Anthropology, 16, 224–238. doi: 10.1002/evan.20147 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Thorpe, W. H. (1963). Learning and instinct in animals (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  107. Tinbergen, N. (1963). On aims and methods of ethology. Ethology, 20, 410–433.Google Scholar
  108. Tomasello, M., Kruger, A. C., & Ratner, H. H. (1993). Cultural learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16, 495–511. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X0003123X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Tomasello, M., & Call, J. (1997). Primate cognition. New York Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  110. Trevarthen, C., & Aitken, K. J. (2001). Infant intersubjectivity: Research, theory, and clinical applications. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42, 3–48. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00701 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. (1972). A comparative approach to the phylogeny of laughter and smiling. In R. A. Hinde (Ed.), Nonverbal communication (pp. 209–241). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  112. van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. (1989). Laughter and humor, and the “duo-induo” of nature and culture. In A. K. Walter (Ed.), The nature of culture (pp. 120–149). Bochum: Brockmeyer.Google Scholar
  113. van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M., & Preuschoft, S. (2003). Laughter and smiling: The intertwining of nature and culture. In F. B. M. de Waal & P. L. Tyack (Eds.), Animal social complexity (pp. 260–287). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  114. Waller, B. M., & Dunbar, R. I. (2005). Differential behavioural effects of silent bared teeth display and relaxed open mouth display in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Ethology, 111, 129–142. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0310.2004.01045.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Whiten, A., McGuigan, N., Marshall-Pescini, S., & Hopper, L. M. (2009). Emulation, imitation, over-imitation and the scope of culture for child and chimpanzee. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 364, 2417–2428. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2009.0069 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Natural History MuseumUniversity of PisaCalciItaly

Personalised recommendations