Sex differences in the neural underpinnings of social and monetary incentive processing during adolescence

  • Ellen Greimel
  • Sarolta Bakos
  • Iris Landes
  • Thomas Töllner
  • Jürgen Bartling
  • Gregor Kohls
  • Gerd Schulte-Körne


The brain’s reward system undergoes major changes during adolescence, and an increased reactivity to social and nonsocial incentives has been described as a typical feature during this transitional period. Little is known whether there are sex differences in the brain’s responsiveness to social or monetary incentives during adolescence. The aim of this event-related potential (ERP) study was to compare the neurophysiological underpinnings of monetary and social incentive processing in adolescent boys versus girls. During ERP recording, 38 adolescents (21 females, 17 males; 13–18 years) completed an incentive delay task comprising (a) a reward versus punishment condition and (b) social versus monetary incentives. The stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) was recorded during anticipation of reward and punishment, and the feedback P3 (fP3) along with the feedback-related negativity (FRN) after reward/punishment delivery. During anticipation of social punishment, adolescent boys compared with girls exhibited a reduced SPN. After delivery, male adolescents exhibited higher fP3 amplitudes to monetary compared with social incentives, whereas fP3 amplitudes in girls were comparable across incentive types. Moreover, whereas in boys fP3 responses were higher in rewards than in punishment trials, no such difference was evident in girls. The results indicate that adolescent boys show a reduced neural responsivity in the prospect of social punishment. Moreover, the findings imply that, once the incentive is obtained, adolescent boys attribute a relatively enhanced motivational significance to monetary incentives and show a relative hyposensitivity to punishment. The findings might contribute to our understanding of sex-specific vulnerabilities to problem behaviors related to incentive processing during adolescence.


Sex Event-related potentials Adolescence Monetary Social Reward Punishment Incentive 



We are grateful to all participants with their families who took part in this study. We further would like to thank Carolina Silberbauer and Petra Wagenbüchler for their assistance during data collection. This work was supported by the Faculty of Medicine, University of Munich (Förderprogramm für Forschung und Lehre to E.G; 776).

Supplementary material

13415_2018_570_MOESM1_ESM.docx (659 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 658 kb)
13415_2018_570_MOESM2_ESM.docx (191 kb)
ESM 2 (DOCX 191 kb)


  1. Achenbach, T. M. (1993). Empirically based taxonomy: How to use syndromes and profile types derived from the CBCL from 4 to 18, TRF, and WSR. Burlington: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  2. Alarcon, G., Cservenka, A., & Nagel, B. J. (2017). Adolescent neural response to reward is related to participant sex and task motivation. Brain and Cognition, 111, 51–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Barman, A., Richter, S., Soch, J., Deibele, A., Richter, A., Assmann, A., … Schott, B. H. (2015). Gender-specific modulation of neural mechanisms underlying social reward processing by Autism Quotient. Social Cognitve and Affective Neuroscience, 10(11), 1537–1547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (2006). BDI-II. Beck Depressions-Inventar 2. Auflage. Deutsche Übersetzung der Beck Depression Inventory [German translation of the Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition. Franfurt, Germany: Harcourt Test Services.Google Scholar
  5. Berridge, K. C., & Kringelbach, M. L. (2015). Pleasure systems in the brain. Neuron, 86(3), 646–664.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Blair, R. J. R. (2003). Facial expressions, their communicatory functions and neuro-cognitive substrates. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B: Biological Sciences, 358(1431), 561–572.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Blair, C., Peters, R., & Granger, D. (2004). Physiological and neuropsychological correlates of approach/withdrawal tendencies in preschool: Further examination of the behavioral inhibition system/behavioral activation system scales for young children. Developmental Psychobiology, 45(3), 113–124.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bocker, K. B., Baas, J. M., Kenemans, J. L., & Verbaten, M. N. (2001). Stimulus-preceding negativity induced by fear: A manifestation of affective anticipation. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 43(1), 77–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bocker, K. B., Brunia, C. H., & van den Berg-Lenssen, M. M. (1994). A spatiotemporal dipole model of the stimulus preceding negativity (SPN) prior to feedback stimuli. Brain Topography, 7(1), 71–88.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Böcker, K. B. E., Brunia, C. H. M., & van den Berg-Lenssen, M. M. C. (1994). A spatiotemporal dipole model of the stimulus preceding negativity (SPN) prior to feedback stimuli. Brain Topography, 7(1), 71–88.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bolling, D. Z., Pitskel, N. B., Deen, B., Crowley, M. J., Mayes, L. C., & Pelphrey, K. A. (2011). Development of neural systems for processing social exclusion from childhood to adolescence. Developmental Science, 14(6), 1431–1444.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Broyd, S. J., Richards, H. J., Helps, S. K., Chronaki, G., Bamford, S., & Sonuga-Barke, E. J. (2012). An electrophysiological monetary incentive delay (e-MID) task: A way to decompose the different components of neural response to positive and negative monetary reinforcemment. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 209, 40–49.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Brunia, C. H. (1999). Neural aspects of anticipatory behavior. Acta Psycholgica, 101(2/3), 213–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brunia, C. H. M., Hackley, S. A., van Boxtel, G. J. M., Kotani, Y., & Ohgami, Y. (2011). Waiting to perceive: Reward or punishment? Clinical Neurophysiology, 122(5), 858–868.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Carver, C. S., & White, T. L. (1994). Behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: The BIS/BAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 319–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Costello, E. J., Mustillo, S., Erkanli, A., Keeler, G., & Angold, A. (2003). Prevalence and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60(8), 837–844.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cox, A., Kohls, G., Naples, A. J., Mukerji, C. E., Coffman, M. C., Rutherford, H. J., … McPartland, J. C. (2015). Diminished social reward anticipation in the broad autism phenotype as revealed by event-related brain potentials. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 10(10),1357–1364. doi: CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Cremers, H. R., Veer, I. M., Spinhoven, P., Rombouts, S. A. R. B., & Roelofs, K. (2014). Neural sensitivity to social reward and punishment anticipation in social anxiety disorder. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 8, 439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Crowley, M. J., Wu, J., Hommer, R. E., South, M., Molfese, P. J., Fearon, R. M., & Mayes, L. C. (2013). A developmental study of the feedback-related negativity from 10-17 years: Age and sex effects for reward versus non-reward. Developmental Neuropsychology, 38(8), 595–612.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Dillon, D. G., & Pizzagalli, D. A. (2013). Evidence of successful modulation of brain activation and subjective experience during reappraisal of negative emotion in unmedicated depression. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 212(2), 99–107.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Eme, R. F. (2007). Sex differences in child-onset, life-course-persistent conduct disorder: A review of biological influences. Clinical Psychology Review, 27(5), 607–627.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Fairchild, G., Van Goozen, S. H. M., Calder, A. J., Stollery, S. J., & Goodyer, I. M. (2009). Deficits in facial expression recognition in male adolescents with early-onset or adolescence-onset conduct disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 50(5), 627–636.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Flores, A., Munte, T. F., & Donamayor, N. (2015). Event-related EEG responses to anticipation and delivery of monetary and social reward. Biological Psychology, 109, 10–19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Foti, D., & Hajcak, G. (2009). Depression and reduced sensitivity to non-rewards versus rewards: Evidence from event-related potentials. Biological Psychology, 81(1), 1–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Foti, D., & Hajcak, G. (2012). Genetic variation in dopamine moderates neural response during reward anticipation and delivery: Evidence from event-related potentials. Psychophysiology, 49(5), 617–626.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Foulkes, L., & Blakemore, S. J. (2016). Is there heightened sensitivity to social reward in adolescence? Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 40, 81–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Fusar-Poli, P., Placentino, A., Carletti, F., Landi, P., Allen, P., Surguladze, S., … Politi, P. (2009). Functional atlas of emotional faces processing: A voxel-based meta-analysis of 105 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 34(6), 418–432.Google Scholar
  28. Gehring, W. J., & Willoughby, A. R. (2002). The medial frontal cortex and the rapid processing of monetary gains and losses. Science, 295, 2279–2282.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Giedd, J. N. (2008). The teen brain: Insights from neuroimaging. Journal of Adolescent Health, 42, 335–343.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Gonzalez-Gadea, M. L., Sigman, M., Rattazzi, A., Lavin, C., Rivera-Rei, A., Marini, J., … Ibanez, A. (2016). Neural markers of social and monetary rewards in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. Scientific Reports, 6, 30588. doi: CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Grose-Fifer, J., Migliaccio, R., & Zottoli, T. M. (2014). Feedback processing in adolescence: An event-related potential study of age and gender differences. Developmental Neuroscience, 36(3/4), 228–238.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Hajcak, G., Moser, J. S., Holroyd, C. B., & Simons, R. F. (2006). The feedback-related negativity reflects the binary evaluation of good versus bad outcomes. Biological Psychology, 71(2), 148–154.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Hajcak, G., Moser, J. S., Holroyd, C. B., & Simons, R. F. (2007). It’s worse than you thought: The feedback negativity and violations of reward prediction in gambling tasks. Psychophysiology, 44(6), 905–912.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hobson, N. M., & Inzlicht, M. (2016). The mere presence of an outgroup member disrupts the brain’s feedback-monitoring system. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 11(11), 1698–1706.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Holroyd, C. B., Hajcak, G., & Larsen, J. T. (2006). The good, the bad and the neutral: Electrophysiological responses to feedback stimuli. Brain Research, 1105(1), 93–101.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Jaensch, M., van den Hurk, W., Dzhelyova, M., Hahn, A. C., Perrett, D. I., Richards, A., & Smith, M. L. (2014). Don’t look back in anger: The rewarding value of a female face is discounted by an angry expression. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 40(6), 2101–2105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Kamarajan, C., Porjesz, B., Rangaswamy, M., Tang, Y., Chorlian, D. B., Padmanabhapillai, A., … Begleiter, H. (2009). Brain signatures of monetary loss and gain: Outcome-related potentials in a single outcome gambling task. Behavioral Brain Research, 197(1), 62–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Knutson, B., Bhanji, J. P., Cooney, R. E., Atlas, L. Y., & Gotlib, I. H. (2008). Neural responses to monetary incentives in major depression. Biological Psychiatry, 63(7), 686–692.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Knutson, B., Westdorp, A., Kaiser, E., & Hommer, D. (2000). FMRI visualization of brain activity during a monetary incentive delay task. NeuroImage, 12(1), 20–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kohls, G., Peltzer, J., Herpertz-Dahlmann, B., & Konrad, K. (2009). Differential effects of social and non-social reward on response inhibition in children and adolescents. Developmental Science, 12(4), 614–625.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Kohls, G., Peltzer, J., Schulte-Rüther, M., Kamp-Becker, I., Remschmidt, H., Herpertz-Dahlmann, B., & Konrad, K. (2011). Atypical brain responses to reward cues in autism as revealed by event-related potentials. Journal of Autism and Developmental Dirsorders, 41(11), 1523–1533.Google Scholar
  42. Kohls, G., Perino, M. T., Taylor, J. M., Madva, E. N., Cayless, S. J., Troiani, V., … Schultz, R. T. (2013). The nucleus accumbens is involved in both the pursuit of social reward and the avoidance of social punishment. Neuropsychologia, 51(11), 2062–2069.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Kohls, G., Schulte-Ruether, M., Nehrkorn, B., Müller, K., Fink, G. R., Herpertz-Dahlmann, B., … Konrad, K. (2013). Reward system dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 8, 565–572.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Kohls, G., Thonessen, H., Bartley, G. K., Grossheinrich, N., Fink, G. R., Herpertz-Dahlmann, B., & Konrad, K. (2014). Differentiating neural reward responsiveness in autism versus ADHD. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 10, 104–116.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Kotani, Y., Kishida, S., Hiraku, S., Suda, K., Ishii, M., & Aihara, Y. (2003). Effects of information and reward on stimulus-preceding negativity prior to feedback stimuli. Psychophysiology, 40(5), 818–826.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Kotani, Y., Ohgami, Y., Ishiwata, T., Arai, J., Kiryu, S., & Inoue, Y. (2015). Source analysis of stimulus-preceding negativity constrained by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Biological Psychology, 111, 53–64.Google Scholar
  47. Langner, O., Dotsch, R., Bijlstra, G., Wigboldus, D. H. J., Hawk, S. T., & van Kippenberg, A. (2010). Presentation and validation of the Raboud Faces Database. Cognition and Emotion, 24, 1377–1388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lenroot, R. K., & Giedd, J. N. (2010). Sex differences in the adolescent brain. Brain and Cognition, 72(1), 46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Masaki, H., Takeuchi, S., Gehring, W. J., Takasawa, N., & Yamazaki, K. (2006). Affective-motivational influences on feedback-related ERPs in a gambling task. Brain Research, 1105(1), 110–121.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Miltner, W. H. R., Braun, C. H., & Coles, M. G. H. (1997). Event-related brain potentials following incorrect feedback in a time-estimation task: Evidence for a “generic” neural system for error detection. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 9(6), 788–798.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Mühlberger, A., Wieser, M. J., Gerdes, A. B. M., Frey, M. C. M., Weyers, P., & Pauli, P. (2011). Stop looking angry and smile, please: Start and stop of the very same facial expression differentially activate threat- and reward-related brain networks. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 6(3), 321–329.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Nawijn, L., van Zuiden, M., Koch, S. B. J., Frijling, J. L., Veltman, D. J., & Olff, M. (2017). Intranasal oxytocin increases neural responses to social reward in post-traumatic stress disorder. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 12(2), 212–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Nieuwenhuis, S., Aston-Jones, G., & Cohen, J. D. (2005). Decision making, the P3, and the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system. Psychological Bulletin, 131(4), 510–532.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Novak, K. D., & Foti, D. (2015). Teasing apart the anticipatory and consummatory processing of monetary incentives: An event-related potential study of reward dynamics. Psychophysiology, 52(11), 14701482. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Novak, B. K., Novak, K. D., Lynam, D. R., & Foti, D. (2016). Individual differences in the time course of reward processing: Stage-specific links with depression and impulsivity. Biological Psychology, 119, 79–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Öhman, A. (1986). Face the beast and fear the face: Animal and social fears as prototypes for evolutionary analyses of emotion. Psychophysiology, 23(2), 123–145.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Pagliaccio, D., Luking, K. R., Anokhin, A. P., Gotlib, I. H., Hayden, E. P., Olino, T. M., … Barch, D. M. (2016). Revising the BIS/BAS Scale to study development: Measurement invariance and normative effects of age and sex from childhood through adulthood. Psychological Assessment, 28(4), 429–442.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Pavlova, M. A. (2017). Sex and gender affect the social brain: Beyond simplicity. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 95(1/2), 235–250.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Pavlova, M. A., Scheffler, K., & Sokolov, A. N. (2015). Face-n-food: Gender differences in tuning to faces. PLoS ONE, 10(7), e0130363.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Poli, S., Sarlo, M., Bortoletto, M., Buodo, G., & Palomba, D. (2007). Stimulus-preceding negativity and heart rate changes in anticipation of affective pictures. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 65(1), 32–39.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Proudfit, G. H. (2015). The reward positivity: From basic research on reward to a biomarker for depression. Psychophysiology, 52(4), 449–459.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Proverbio, A. M. (2017). Sex differences in social cognition: The case of face processing. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 95(1/2), 222–234.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Rademacher, L., Krach, S., Kohls, G., Irmak, A., Grunder, G., & Spreckelmeyer, K. N. (2010). Dissociation of neural networks for anticipation and consumption of monetary and social rewards. NeuroImage, 49(4), 3276–3285.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Richey, J. A., Rittenberg, A., Hughes, L., Damiano, C. R., Sabatino, A., Miller, S., … Dichter, G. S. (2014). Common and distinct neural features of social and non-social reward processing in autism and social anxiety disorder. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 9(3), 367–377.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Roelofs, K., Hagenaars, M. A., & Stins, J. (2010). Facing freeze: Social threat induces bodily freeze in humans. Psychological Science, 21(11), 1575–1581.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. San Martin, R. (2012). Event-related potential studies of outcome processing and feedback-guided learning. Frontiers in Humam Neuroscience, 6, 304.Google Scholar
  67. Santesso, D. L., Dzyundzyak, A., & Segalowitz, S. J. (2011). Age, sex and individual differences in punishment sensitivity: Factors influencing the feedback-related negativity. Psychophysiology, 48(11), 1481–1489.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Schneider, S., Unnewehr, S., & Margraf, J. (2009). Kinder-DIPS: Diagnostisches Interview bei psychischen Störungen im Kindes- und Jugendalter [Children’s DIPS: Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence] (2nd ed.). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.Google Scholar
  69. Schönenberg, M., Louis, K., Mayer, S., & Jusyte, A. (2013). Impaired identification of threat-related social information in male delinquents with antisocial personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 27(4), 496–505.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Sescousse, G., Caldú, X., Segura, B., & Dreher, J.-C. (2013). Processsing of primary and secondary rewards: A quantitative meta-analysis and review of human functional neuroimaging studies. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 37, 681–696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Shulman, E. P., Harden, K. P., Chein, J. M., & Steinberg, L. (2015). Sex Differences in the developmental trajectories of impulse control and sensation-seeking from early adolescence to early adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44(1), 1–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Silk, J. S., Davis, S., McMakin, D. L., Dahl, R. E., & Forbes, E. E. (2012). Why do anxious children become depressed teenagers? The role of social evaluative threat and reward processing. Psychological Medicine, 42(10), 2095–2107.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Sisk, C. L., & Foster, D. L. (2004). The neural basis of puberty and adolescence. Nature Neuroscience, 7, 1040.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Spielberg, J. M., Jarcho, J. M., Dahl, R. E., Pine, D. S., Ernst, M., & Nelson, E. E. (2015). Anticipation of peer evaluation in anxious adolescents: Divergence in neural activation and maturation. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 10(8), 1084–1091.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Spreckelmeyer, K. N., Krach, S., Kohls, G., Rademacher, L., Irmak, A., Konrad, K., … Gründer, G. (2009). Anticipation of monetary and social reward differently activates mesolimbic brain structures in men and women. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 4(2), 158–165.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Stavropoulos, K. K., & Carver, L. J. (2013). Reward sensitivity to faces versus objects in children: An ERP study. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 9(10), 1569–1575.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Stavropoulos, K. K., & Carver, L. J. (2014a). Effect of familiarity on reward anticipation in children with and without autism spectrum disorders. PLoS ONE, 9(9), e106667.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Stavropoulos, K. K., & Carver, L. J. (2014b). Reward anticipation and processing of social versus nonsocial stimuli in children with and without autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55(12), 1398–1408.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Strobel, A., Beauducel, A., Debener, S., & Brocke, B. (2001). Eine deutschsprachige Version des BIS/BAS-Fragebogens von Carver und White [A German version of the BIS/BAS Questionnaire by Carver and White]. Zeitschrift für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie, 22, 216–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sun, S., & Yu, R. (2014). The feedback related negativity encodes both social rejection and explicit social expectancy violation. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8(556), 1–9.Google Scholar
  81. van Duijvenvoorde, A. C., Peters, S., Braams, B. R., & Crone, E. A. (2016). What motivates adolescents? Neural responses to rewards and their influence on adolescents’ risk taking, learning, and cognitive control. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 70, 135–147.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Walker, D. M., Bell, M. R., Flores, C., Gulley, J. M., Willing, J., & Paul, M. J. (2017). Adolescence and reward: Making sense of neural and behavioral changes amid the chaos. The Journal of Neuroscience, 37(45), 10855–10866.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Walsh, M. M., & Anderson, J. R. (2012). Learning from experience: Event-related potential correlates of reward processing, neural adaptation, and behavioral choice. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 36(8), 1870–1884.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Weiß, R. H. (2006). Grundintelligenztest Skala 2, Revision (CFT 20-R) [Culture Fair Intelligence Test 20-R—Scale 2]. Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  85. Wilkinson, D., & Halligan, P. (2004). The relevance of behavioural measures for functional-imaging studies on cognition. Nature Neuroscience Reviews, 5, 67–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Williams, J. H. G., Whiten, A., Suddendorf, T., & Perrett, D. I. (2001). Imitation, mirror neurons and autism. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 25, 287–295.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Yeung, N., & Sanfey, A. G. (2004). Independent coding of reward magnitude and valence in the human brain. Journal of Neuroscience, 24(28), 6258–6264.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Yi, F., Chen, H., Wang, X., Shi, H., Yi, J., Zhu, X., & Yao, S. (2012). Amplitude and latency of feedback-related negativity: Aging and sex differences. Neuroreport, 23(16), 963–969.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Zubeidat, I., Salinas, J. M., & Sierra, J. C. (2008). Exploration of the psychometric characteristics of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale in a Spanish adolescent sample. Depression and Anxiety, 25(11), 977–987.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ellen Greimel
    • 1
  • Sarolta Bakos
    • 1
  • Iris Landes
    • 1
  • Thomas Töllner
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jürgen Bartling
    • 1
  • Gregor Kohls
    • 4
  • Gerd Schulte-Körne
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and PsychotherapyUniversity Hospital MunichMunichGermany
  2. 2.Department of Experimental PsychologyLudwig-Maximilians-University of MunichMunichGermany
  3. 3.Graduate School of Systemic NeurosciencesLudwig-Maximilians-University of MunichMunichGermany
  4. 4.Child Neuropsychology Section, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics, and Psychotherapy, Medical FacultyRWTH Aachen University HospitalAachenGermany

Personalised recommendations