Many contend that driving an automobile involves multiple-object tracking. At this point, no one has tested this idea, and it is unclear how multiple-object tracking would coordinate with the other activities involved in driving. To address some of the initial and most basic questions about multiple-object tracking while driving, we modified the tracking task for use in a driving simulator, creating the multiple-vehicle tracking task. In Experiment 1, we employed a dual-task methodology to determine whether there was interference between tracking and driving. Findings suggest that although it is possible to track multiple vehicles while driving, driving reduces tracking performance, and tracking compromises headway and lane position maintenance while driving. Modified change-detection paradigms were used to assess whether there were change localization advantages for tracked targets in multiple-vehicle tracking. When changes occurred during a blanking interval, drivers were more accurate (Experiment 2a) and ~250 ms faster (Experiment 2b) at locating the vehicle that changed when it was a target rather than a distractor in tracking. In a more realistic driving task where drivers had to brake in response to the sudden onset of brake lights in one of the lead vehicles, drivers were more accurate at localizing the vehicle that braked if it was a tracking target, although there was no advantage in terms of braking response time. Overall, results suggest that multiple-object tracking is possible while driving and perhaps even advantageous in some situations, but further research is required to determine whether multiple-object tracking is actually used in day-to-day driving.
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This research was funded through grants to the second author from Auto21: Network Centres of Excellence, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Canadian Foundation for Innovation, and the Ontario Innovation Trust. We would like to thank Ryan Toxopeus for his help in maintaining the driving simulator and proofreading earlier versions of the manuscript.
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Lochner, M.J., Trick, L.M. Multiple-object tracking while driving: the multiple-vehicle tracking task. Atten Percept Psychophys 76, 2326–2345 (2014). https://doi.org/10.3758/s13414-014-0694-3
- Object-based attention
- Perception and action
- Dual-task performance
- Multiple-object tracking