The memory for the vanishing location of a horizontally moving target is usually displaced forward in the direction of motion (representational momentum) and downward in the direction of gravity (representational gravity). Moreover, this downward displacement has been shown to increase with time (representational trajectory). However, the degree to which different kinematic events change the temporal profile of these displacements remains to be determined. The present article attempts to fill this gap. In the first experiment, we replicate the finding that representational momentum for downward-moving targets is bigger than for upward motions, showing, moreover, that it increases rapidly during the first 300 ms, stabilizing afterward. This temporal profile, but not the increased error for descending targets, is shown to be disrupted when eye movements are not allowed. In the second experiment, we show that the downward drift with time emerges even for static targets. Finally, in the third experiment, we report an increased error for upward-moving targets, as compared with downward movements, when the display is compatible with a downward ego-motion by including vection cues. Thus, the errors in the direction of gravity are compatible with the perceived event and do not merely reflect a retinotopic bias. Overall, these results provide further evidence for an internal model of gravity in the visual representational system.
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This work was supported by Grant SFRH/BPD/84118/2012, Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT).
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De Sá Teixeira, N., Hecht, H. Can representational trajectory reveal the nature of an internal model of gravity?. Atten Percept Psychophys 76, 1106–1120 (2014). https://doi.org/10.3758/s13414-014-0626-2
- Internal model
- Representational momentum
- Representational gravity
- Motion perception
- Eye movements