Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 328–331 | Cite as

Reading habits for both words and numbers contribute to the SNARC effect

  • Samuel Shaki
  • Martin H. Fischer
  • William M. Petrusic
Brief Reports


This study compared the spatial representation of numbers in three groups of adults: Canadians, who read both English words and Arabic numbers from left to right; Palestinians, who read Arabic words and Arabic-Indic numbers from right to left; and Israelis, who read Hebrew words from right to left but Arabic numbers from left to right. Canadians associated small numbers with left and large numbers with right space (the SNARC effect), Palestinians showed the reverse association, and Israelis had no reliable spatial association for numbers. These results suggest that reading habits for both words and numbers contribute to the spatial representation of numbers.


Spatial Association Grip Aperture Mental Number Line Number Magnitude Parity Task 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samuel Shaki
    • 1
  • Martin H. Fischer
    • 2
  • William M. Petrusic
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Behavioral SciencesAriel University Center of SamariaArielIsrael
  2. 2.University of DundeeDundeeScotland
  3. 3.Carleton UniversityOttawaCanada

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