Behavior Research Methods

, Volume 42, Issue 4, pp 987–991

Leipzig Affective Norms for German: A reliability study


DOI: 10.3758/BRM.42.4.987

Cite this article as:
Kanske, P. & Kotz, S.A. Behavior Research Methods (2010) 42: 987. doi:10.3758/BRM.42.4.987


To facilitate investigations of verbal emotional processing, we introduce the Leipzig Affective Norms for German (LANG), a list of 1,000 German nouns that have been rated for emotional valence, arousal, and concreteness. A critical factor regarding the quality of normative word data is their reliability. We therefore acquired ratings from a sample that was tested twice, with an interval of 2 years, to calculate test—retest reliability. Furthermore, we recruited a second sample to test reliability across independent samples. The results show (1) the typical quadratic relation of valence and arousal, replicating previous data, (2) very high test—retest reliability (>.95), and (3) high correlations between the two samples (>.85). Because the range of ratings was also very high, we provide a comprehensive set of words with reliable affective norms, which makes it possible to select highly controlled subsamples varying in emotional status. The database is available as a supplement for this article at

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Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain SciencesLeipzigGermany
  2. 2.Department of Cognitive and Clinical NeuroscienceCentral Institute of Mental HealthMannheimGermany

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