Behavior Research Methods

, Volume 41, Issue 3, pp 957–970 | Cite as

Cooperation versus competition in a mass emergency evacuation: A new laboratory simulation and a new theoretical model

  • John DruryEmail author
  • Chris Cocking
  • Steve Reicher
  • Andy Burton
  • Damian Schofield
  • Andrew Hardwick
  • Danielle Graham
  • Paul Langston


Virtual reality technology is argued to be suitable to the simulation study of mass evacuation behavior, because of the practical and ethical constraints in researching this field. This article describes three studies in which a new virtual reality paradigm was used, in which participants had to escape from a burning underground rail station. Study 1 was carried out in an immersion laboratory and demonstrated that collective identification in the crowd was enhanced by the (shared) threat embodied in emergency itself. In Study 2, high-identification participants were more helpful and pushed less than did low-identification participants. In Study 3, identification and group size were experimentally manipulated, and similar results were obtained. These results support a hypothesis according to which (emergent) collective identity motivates solidarity with strangers. It is concluded that the virtual reality technology developed here represents a promising start, although more can be done to embed it in a traditional psychology laboratory setting.


Social Identity Collective Identity Mortality Salience Emergency Evacuation Collective Identification 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Drury
    • 5
    Email author
  • Chris Cocking
    • 1
  • Steve Reicher
    • 2
  • Andy Burton
    • 3
  • Damian Schofield
    • 4
  • Andrew Hardwick
    • 5
  • Danielle Graham
    • 2
  • Paul Langston
    • 3
  1. 1.London Metropolitan UniversityLondonEngland
  2. 2.St. Andrews UniversityFifeScotland
  3. 3.University of NottinghamNottinghamEngland
  4. 4.RMIT UniversityVictoriaAustralia
  5. 5.School of PsychologyUniversity of SussexFalmer, BrightonEngland

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