Advertisement

Behavior Research Methods

, Volume 40, Issue 2, pp 563–574 | Cite as

The three-factor model of Internet addiction: The development of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire

  • Zsolt Demetrovics
  • Beatrix Szeredi
  • Sándor Rózsa
Article

Abstract

Despite the fact that more and more clinical case studies and research reports have been published on the increasing problem of Internet addiction, no generally accepted standardized tool is available to measure problematic Internet use or Internet addiction. The aim of our study was to create such a questionnaire. On the basis of earlier studies and our previous experience with Young’s (1998a) Internet Addiction Test, initially, we created a 30-item questionnaire, which was assessed together with other questions regarding participants’ Internet use. Data were collected online from 1,037 persons (54.1% of them male; mean age, 23.3 years; SD, 9.1). As a result of reliability analysis and factor analysis, we reduced the number of items to 18 and created the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ) containing three subscales: obsession, neglect, and control disorder. Cronbach’s α of the PIUQ is .87 (Cronbach’s α of the subscales is .85, .74, and .76, respectively). The test-retest correlation of the PIUQ is .90. The PIUQ proved to be a reliable measurement for assessing the extent of problems caused by the “misuse” of the Internet; however, further analysis is needed. nt]mis|This research was supported by Grant KAB-KT-02-13 from the Ministry of Children, Youth, and Sport in Hungary.

Keywords

Pathological Gambling Internet Usage Online Communication Internet Addiction Slot Machine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.) (DSM-IV ). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. Armstrong, L., Phillips, J. G., & Saling, L. L. (2000). Potential determinants of heavier Internet usage. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 53, 537–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bai, Y.-M., Lin, C.-C., & Chen, J.-Y. (2001). Internet addiction disorder among clients of a virtual clinic. Psychiatric Services, 52, 1397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beard, K. W. (2005). Internet addiction: A review of current assessment techniques and potential assessment questions. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 8, 7–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beard, K. W., & Wolf, E. M. (2001). Modification in the proposed diagnostic criteria for Internet addiction. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 4, 377–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Belsare, T. J., Gaffney, G. R., & Black, D. W. (1997). Compulsive computer use. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Blum, K., Braverman, E. R., Holder, J. M., Lubar, J. F., Monastra, V. J., Miller, D., et al. (2000). Reward deficiency syndrome: A biogenetic model for the diagnosis and treatment of impulsive, addictive, and compulsive behaviors. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 32(Suppl. i–iv), 1–112.Google Scholar
  8. Blum, K., Sheridan, P. J., Wood, R. C., Braverman, E. R., Chen, T. J., & Comings, D. E. (1995). Dopamine D2 receptor gene variants: Association and linkage studies in impulsive-addictive-compulsive behaviour. Pharmacogenetics, 5, 121–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brenner, V. (1997). Psychology of computer use: XLVII. Parameters of Internet use, abuse and addiction: The first 90 days of the Internet Usage Survey. Psychological Reports, 80, 879–882.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Caplan, S. E. (2002). Problematic Internet use and psychosocial wellbeing: Development of a theory-based cognitive-behavioral measurement instrument. Computers in Human Behavior, 18, 553–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chak, K., & Leung, L. (2004). Shyness and locus of control as predictors of Internet addiction and Internet use. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 7, 559–570.Google Scholar
  12. Chou, C., Condron, L., & Belland, J. C. (2005). A review of the research on Internet addiction. Educational Psychology Review, 17, 363–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Comings, D. E., & Blum, K. (2000). Reward deficiency syndrome: Genetic aspects of behavioral disorders. Progress in Brain Research, 126, 325–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cronk, B. C., & West, J. L. (2002). Personality research on the Internet: A comparison of Web-based and traditional instruments in take-home and in-class settings. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 34, 177–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Davis, R. A. (2001). A cognitive-behavioral model of pathological Internet use. Computers in Human Behavior, 17, 187–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Davis, R. A., Flett, G. L., & Besser, A. (2002). Validation of a new scale for measuring problematic Internet use: Implications for preemployment screening. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 5, 331–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Demetrovics, Z. (2007). A droghasználat funkciói [The functions of drug use]. Budapest: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  18. Goldberg, I. (1995). Internet addictive disorder (IAD) diagnostic criteria. Retrieved July 27, 2007, from www.psycom.net/iadcriteria.html.Google Scholar
  19. Greenfield, D. N. (1999). Psychological characteristics of compulsive Internet use: A preliminary analysis. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 2, 403–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Grezsa, F. S., Takács, Z., & Demetrovics, Z. (2001). www.necc.hu— Ifjúsági Mentálhigiénés Szolgálat az Interneten [www.necc.hu—An online youth mental health service]. Új Pedagógiai Szemle, 5, 115–120.Google Scholar
  21. Griffiths, M. (1997). Psychology of computer use: XLIII. Some comments on “Addictive use of the Internet” by Young. Psychological Reports, 80, 81–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Griffiths, M. (2000). Does Internet and computer “addiction” exist? Some case study evidence. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 3, 211–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hansen, S. (2002). Excessive Internet usage or “Internet addiction”? The implications of diagnostic categories for student users. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 18, 232–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hollander, E. (1993). Obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders: An overview. Psychiatric Annals, 23, 355–358.Google Scholar
  25. Hollander, E., & Wong, C. M. (1995). Obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 56(Suppl. 4), 3–6; discussion 53-55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Kandell, J. J. (1998). Internet addiction on campus: The vulnerability of college students. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 1, 11–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ko, C.-H., Yen, J.-Y., Chen, C.-C., Chen, S.-H., Wu, K., & Yen, C.-F. (2006). Tridimensional personality of adolescents with Internet addiction and substance use experience. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 51, 887–894.Google Scholar
  28. Koch, W. H., & Pratarelli, M. E. (2004). Effects of intro/extraversion and sex on social Internet use. North American Journal of Psychology, 6, 371–382.Google Scholar
  29. Kraut, R., Kiesler, S., Boneva, B., Cummings, J., Helgeson, V., & Crawford, A. (2002). Internet paradox revisited. Journal of Social Issues, 58, 49–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kraut, R., Patterson, M., Lundmark, V., Kiesler, S., Mukopadhyay, T., & Scherlis, W. (1998). Internet paradox: A social technology that reduces social involvement and psychological well-being? American Psychologist, 53, 1017–1031.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kubey, R. W., Lavin, M. J., & Barrows, J. R. (2001). Internet use and collegiate academic performance decrements: Early findings. Journal of Communication, 51, 366–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Leung, L. (2004). Net-generation attributes and seductive properties of the Internet as predictors of online activities and Internet addiction. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 7, 333–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Marks, I. (1990). Behavioural (non-chemical) addictions. British Journal of Addiction, 85, 1389–1394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mitchell, P. (2000). Internet addiction: Genuine diagnosis or not? Lancet, 355, 632.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Morahan-Martin, J. (2005). Internet abuse: Addiction? Disorder? Symptom? Alternative explanations? Social Science Computer Review, 23, 39–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Morahan-Martin, J., & Schumacher, P. (2000). Incidence and correlates of pathological Internet use among college students. Computers in Human Behavior, 16, 13–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nalwa, K., & Anand, A. P. (2003). Internet addiction in students: A cause of concern. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 6, 653–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nichols, L. A., & Nicki, R. (2004). Development of a psychometrically sound Internet addiction scale: A preliminary step. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18, 381–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nyikos, E., Szeredi, B., & Demetrovics, Z. (2001). Egy új viselkedéses addikció: Az Internethasználat személyiségpszichológiai korrelátumai [A new behavioral addiction: The personality psychological correlates of Internet use]. Pszichoterápia, 10, 168–182.Google Scholar
  40. Pratarelli, M. E., & Browne, B. L. (2002). Confirmatory factor analysis of Internet use and addiction. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 5, 53–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pratarelli, M. E., Browne, B. L., & Johnson, K. (1999). The bits and bytes of computer/Internet addiction: A factor analytic approach. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 31, 305–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shapira, N. A., Goldsmith, T. D., Keck, P. E., Jr., Khosla, U. M., & McElroy, S. L. (2000). Psychiatric features of individuals with problematic Internet use. Journal of Affective Disorders, 57, 267–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Shapira, N. A., Lessig, M. C., Goldsmith, T. D., Szabo, S. T., Lazoritz, M., Gold, M. S., & Stein, D. J. (2003). Problematic Internet use: Proposed classification and diagnostic criteria. Depression & Anxiety, 17, 207–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Treuer, T., Fábián, Z., & Füredi, J. (2001). Internet addiction associated with features of impulse control disorder: Is it a real psychiatric disorder? Journal of Affective Disorders, 66, 283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Whang, L. S., Lee, S., & Chang, G. (2003). Internet over-users’ psychological profiles: A behavior sampling analysis on Internet addiction. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 6, 143–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Widyanto, L., & McMurran, M. (2004). The psychometric properties of the Internet addiction test. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 7, 443–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Young, K. S. (1996). Psychology of computer use: XL. Addictive use of the Internet: A case that breaks the stereotype. Psychological Reports, 79, 899–902.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Young, K. S. (1998a). Caught in the Net: How to recognize the signs of Internet addiction—and a winning strategy for recovery. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  49. Young, K. S. (1998b). Internet addiction: The emergence of a new clinical disorder. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 1, 237–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Young, K. S., & Rodgers, R. C. (1998). The relationship between depression and Internet addiction. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 1, 25–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Yuen, C. N., & Lavin, M. J. (2004). Internet dependence in the collegiate population: The role of shyness. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 7, 379–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zsolt Demetrovics
    • 1
  • Beatrix Szeredi
    • 1
  • Sándor Rózsa
    • 1
  1. 1.Addiction Research UnitEötvös Loránd UniversityBudapestHungary

Personalised recommendations