A list of role names for future use in research on gender stereotyping was created and evaluated. In two studies, 126 role names were rated with reference to their gender stereotypicality by English-, French-, and German-speaking students of universities in Switzerland (French and German) and in the U.K. (English). Role names were either presented in specific feminine and masculine forms (Study 1) or in the masculine form (generic masculine) only (Study 2). The rankings of the stereotypicality ratings were highly reliable across languages and questionnaire versions, but the overall mean of the ratings was less strongly male if participants were also presented with the female versions of the role names and if the latter were presented on the left side of the questionnaires.
Online Appendix German Sample Flight Attendant Grammatical Form English Sample
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
Baudino, C. (2001). Politique de la langue et différence sexuelle: La politisation du genre des noms de métier [Language policies and sexual differences: The political awareness of the gender of professional occupations]. Paris: L’Harmattan.Google Scholar
Beggs, J. M., & Doolittle, D. C. (1993). Perceptions now and then of occupational sex typing: A replication of Shinar’s 1975 study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 23, 1435–1453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Colé, P., & Segui, J. (1994). Grammatical incongruency and vocabulary types. Memory & Cognition, 22, 387–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Couch, J. V., & Sigler, J. N. (2001). Gender perception of professional occupations. Psychological Reports, 88, 693–698.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Duffy, S. A., & Keir, J. A. (2004). Violating stereotypes: Eye movements and comprehension processes when text conflicts with world knowledge. Memory & Cognition, 32, 551–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garnham, A., Oakhill, J., & Reynolds, D. (2002). Are inferences from stereotyped role names to characters’ gender made elaboratively? Memory & Cognition, 30, 439–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kennison, S. M., & Trofe, L. (2003). Comprehending pronouns: A role for word-specific gender stereotype information. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 32, 355–378.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Oakhill, J., Garnham, A., & Reynolds, D. (2005). Immediate activation of stereotypical gender information. Memory & Cognition, 33, 972–983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rammstedt, B., & Krebs, D. (2007). Does response scale format affect the answering of personality scales? Assessing the Big Five dimensions of personality with different response scales in a dependent sample. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 23, 32–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sastre, M. T., Fouquereau, E., Igier, V., Salvatore, N., & Mullet, E. (2000). Perception of occupational gender typing: A replication on European samples of Shinar’s (1975) and Beggs and Doolittle’s (1993) studies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 30, 430–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shinar, E. H. (1975). Sexual stereotypes of occupations. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 7, 99–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stahlberg, D., Braun, F., Irmen, L., & Sczesny, S. (2007). Representation of the sexes in language. In K. Fiedler (Ed.), Social communication (pp. 163–187). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
Sturt, P. (2003). The time-course of the application of binding constraints in reference resolution. Journal of Memory & Language, 48, 542–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar