Behavior Research Methods

, Volume 40, Issue 1, pp 206–212 | Cite as

Au pairs are rarely male: Norms on the gender perception of role names across English, French, and German

  • Ute GabrielEmail author
  • Pascal Gygax
  • Oriane Sarrasin
  • Alan Garnham
  • Jane Oakhill


A list of role names for future use in research on gender stereotyping was created and evaluated. In two studies, 126 role names were rated with reference to their gender stereotypicality by English-, French-, and German-speaking students of universities in Switzerland (French and German) and in the U.K. (English). Role names were either presented in specific feminine and masculine forms (Study 1) or in the masculine form (generic masculine) only (Study 2). The rankings of the stereotypicality ratings were highly reliable across languages and questionnaire versions, but the overall mean of the ratings was less strongly male if participants were also presented with the female versions of the role names and if the latter were presented on the left side of the questionnaires.


Online Appendix German Sample Flight Attendant Grammatical Form English Sample 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Supplementary material (79 kb)
Supplementary material, approximately 340 KB.


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Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ute Gabriel
    • 1
    Email author
  • Pascal Gygax
    • 2
  • Oriane Sarrasin
    • 3
  • Alan Garnham
    • 4
  • Jane Oakhill
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyNorwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway
  2. 2.University of FribourgFribourgSwitzerland
  3. 3.University of BernBernSwitzerland
  4. 4.University of SussexBrightonEngland

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