Whether smiling could accrue monetary returns was tested. Two degrees of smiling to single men and women (N = 96) by a waitress in a cocktail lounge was evaluated in terms of number of drinks ordered, size of tip, and whether the customers smiled upon departure. A broad smile reaped more money than a minimal smile and more from men than from women patrons. The results are discussed in terms of reciprocal altruism.
Chapman, A. J., & Chapman, W. A. Responsiveness to humor: Its dependency upon a companion’s humorous smiling and laughter. Journal of Psychology, 1974, 88, 245–252.
Davis, J. N., & Farina, A. Humor appreciation as a social communication. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1970, 15, 175–178.
Ekman, P. Universals and cultural differences in facial expressions of emotion. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 1971, 207–283.
Lockard, J. S., Fahrenbruch, C. E., Smith, J. L., & Morgan, C. J. Smiling and laughter: Different phyletic origins. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1977, 10, 183–186.
Lockard, J. S., McVittie, R. I., & Isaac, L. M. Functional significance of the affiliative smile. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1977, 9, 367–370.
Pedersen, D. M., & Heaston, A. B. The effects of sex of approaching person, of the subject, and angle of approach upon personal space. Journal of Psychology, 1972, 82, 277–286.
Sroufe, L. A., & Waters, E. The ontogenesis of smiling and laughter: A perspective on the organization of development in infancy. Psychological Review, 1976, 83, 173–189.
Trivers, R. L. The evolution of reciprocal altruism. Quarterly Review of Biology, 1971, 46, 35–57.
Wilson, E. O. Sociobiology. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1975.
About this article
Cite this article
Tidd, K.L., Lockard, J.S. Monetary significance of the affiliative smile: A case for reciprocal altruism. Bull. Psychon. Soc. 11, 344–346 (1978). https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03336849
- Personal Space
- Monetary Benefit
- Monetary Return
- Reciprocal Altruism
- Mouth Corner