The effects of noise upon arousal, mood, and cognitive performance were examined in two experiments employing selected groups of introverts and extroverts as subjects. In the first experiments, white noise at 60 dB produced higher physiological activation in introverts, but not in extroverts, as predicted from Eysenck’s theory of personality. Likewise, performance in a comprehension task was impaired in introverts but not in extroverts. Extroverts were also shown to display more subjective deactivation under noise, and to have greater habitual tolerance for noisy real-world environments. In the second experiment, exposure to patterned noise increased state anxiety in both introverts and extroverts, but did not affect aggressiveness.
Reading Comprehension State Anxiety Quiet Condition Noise Stimulus Rock Music
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
Bryant, M. (1973). Noise laws don’t protect the sensitive. New Scientist, 27, 738–740.Google Scholar
Daoussis, L., & McKelvie, S. (1986). Musical preference and the effects of music on a reading comprehension test for extraverts and introverts. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 62, 283–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edsell, R. (1976). Anxiety as a function of environmental noise and social interaction. Journal of Psychology, 92, 219–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eysenck, H. (1967). The biological basis of personality. Springfield, IL: Thomas.Google Scholar
Eysenck, H., & Eysenck, S. (1963). Manual for the Eysenck personality inventory. San Diego: Educational & Industrial Testing Service.Google Scholar
Eysenck, M. (1975). Effects of noise, activation level, and response dominance on retrieval from semantic memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning & Memory, 104, 143–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feshbach, S. (1961). Stimulating versus cathartic effects of a vicarious aggressive activity. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 63, 381–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holding, D., & Baker, M. (1988). Toward meaningful noise research. Journal of General Psychology, 114, 395–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mueller, C. (1983). Environmental stressors and aggressive behavior. In R. Geen & E. Donnerstein (Eds.), Aggression: Theoretical and empirical reviews (Vol. 2, pp. 51–76). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Smith, C., & Morris, L. (1977). Effects of stimulative and sedative music on cognition and emotional components of anxiety. Psychological Reports, 38, 1187–1193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spielberger, C., Gorsuch, R., & Lushene, R.(1970). Manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
Standing, L., & Stace, G. (1980). Effects of environmental noise on anxiety level. Journal of General Psychology, 103, 263–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stanford, R., Angelini, R., & Raphael, A. (1985). Cognition and mood during ganzfeld: Effects of extraversion and noise versus silence. Journal of Parapsychology, 49, 165–191.Google Scholar