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Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society

, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp 139–141 | Cite as

Acquisition and retention of active avoidance in Xenopus laevis

  • Ralph R. Millhr
  • Alvin M. Berk
  • Alan D. Springer
Article

Abstract

Adult male South African clawed frogs, Xenopus laevis, were trained in an aquatic shuttlebox on one-way active avoidance of electric shock. Acquisition was observed within daily sessions (30 trials) and between days (4 days). Control groups indicated that learning, rather than pseudoconditioning or sensitization to the CS, was responsible for the observed change in behavior. A retraining measure yielded appreciable savings after a 28-day retention period. Some of the advantages of this species for behavioral research are discussed.

Keywords

Retention Interval Active Avoidance Black Compartment White Compartment Mental Health Research Institute 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Elsdale, T. R., Gurdon, J. R., & Fischberg, M. A description of the technique for nuclear transplantation in Xenopus laevis. Journal of Embryology & Experimental Morphology, 1960, 8, 437–444.Google Scholar
  2. Haubrich, R. Comparisons between aggressive behavior and learning rate in the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis Daudin. Journal of the Scientific Laboratories, Denison University, 1966, 47, 55–68.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Psychonomic Society, Inc. 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ralph R. Millhr
    • 1
  • Alvin M. Berk
    • 1
  • Alan D. Springer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyBrooklyn Collate of the City University of City University of New YorkBrooklyn

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