Psychonomic Science

, Volume 7, Issue 7, pp 233–234 | Cite as

Imprinting or exposure learning in rats given early auditory stimulation

  • Henry A. Cross
  • Charles G. Halcomb
  • William W. Matter
Animal Behavior Preference


Albino rats were raised from birth in an environment of music in an attempt to assess the effects of early exposure to specific musical forms on subsequent preference behavior. Ss were housed in groups in sound chambers. One group was exposed to selections of the music of Mozart for 12 hr. a day for 52 days; a second group to the music of Schoenberg. In the test situation when the Ss were given an opportunity to select Mozart or Schoenberg music, the Mozart Ss displayed a significant preference for Mozart music. No preference was found among the Schoenberg Ss or among the control Ss raised in a similar environment devoid of music. These results show that early exposure may influence later choice behavior and perhaps point to some attachment process analogous to imprinting. However, questions arise as to why only the Mozart Ss “imprinted.” A possible explanation for this is offered.


Early Exposure Attachment Behavior Attachment Process Partial Partition Floor Section 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Psychonomic Press 1967

Authors and Affiliations

  • Henry A. Cross
    • 1
  • Charles G. Halcomb
    • 2
  • William W. Matter
    • 2
  1. 1.Wittenberg UniversitySpringfieldUSA
  2. 2.Texas Technological CollegeLubbockUSA

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