Pigeons chose, in a two-key discrete-trial procedure, between 2- and 4-sec access to grain, with the larger amount always presented 4 sec later than the smaller. As the delay between the choice and the availability of the smaller reinforcement was varied from .01 to 12 sec, all subjects reversed preference from the small-early to the large-late reinforcement. The values of delay at which preference reversed were approximately consistent with the matching law as adapted for delayed reinforcement.
Ainslie, G. W.Impulse and compulsion: A behavioral economic understanding of involuntary behavior. Unpublished manuscript, 1980.
Ainslie, G. W.Correlates of peck-withholding on a discrete trial specious reward schedule. Unpublished manuscript, 1981.
Ainslie, G. W. Impulse control in pigeons.Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1974,21, 485–489.
Ainslie, G. Specious reward: A behavioral theory of impulsiveness and impulse control.Psychological Bulletin, 1975,82, 463–496.
Baum, W. M., &Rachlin, H. C. Choice as time allocation.Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1969,12, 861–874.
Brown, R., &Herrnstein, R. J. Psychology. Boston: Little, Brown, 1975.
Chung, S.-H., &Herrnstein, R. J. Choice and delay of reinforcement.Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1967,10, 67–74.
Deluty, M. Z. Self-control and impulsiveness involving aversive events.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 1978,4, 250–266.
Fantino, E. Immediate reward followed by extinction vs. later reward without extinction.Psychonomic Science, 1966,6, 233–234.
Herrnstein, R. J. Self control as response strength. In C. M. Bradshaw, E. Szabadi, & C. F. Lowe (Eds.),Quantification of steady-state operant behaviour. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, 1981.
Logan, R. A., &Spanier, D. Relative effect of delay of food and water reward.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1970,72, 102–104.
Mazur, J. E., &Logue, A. W. Choice in a “self-control” paradigm: Effects of a fading procedure.Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1978,30, 11–17.
Navarick, D. J., &Fantino, E. Self-control and general models of choice.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 1976,2, 75–87.
Prelec, D., &Herrnstein, R. J. Feedback functions for reinforcement: A paradigmatic experiment.Animal Learning & Behavior, 1978,6, 181–186.
Rachlin, H. Introduction to modern behaviorism. San Francisco: Freeman, 1970.
Rachlin, H., &Green, L. Commitment, choice and self-control.Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1972,17, 15–22.
Renner, K. E. Delay of reinforcement: A historical review.Psychological Bulletin, 1964,61, 341–361.
Solnick, J. V., Kannenberg, C. H., Eckerman, D. A., &Waller, M. B. An experimental analysis of impulsivity and impulse control in humans.Learning and Motivation, 1980,11, 61–77.
Strotz, R. H. Myopia and inconsistency in dynamic utility maximization.Review of Economic Studies, 1956,23, 166–180.
Williams, B. A., &Fantino, E. Effects on choice of reinforcement delay and conditioned reinforcement.Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1978,29, 77–86.
This research was conducted with support from NIMH, Grant MH-15494 to Harvard University.
About this article
Cite this article
Ainslie, G., Herrnstein, R.J. Preference reversal and delayed reinforcement. Animal Learning & Behavior 9, 476–482 (1981). https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03209777
- Preference Reversal
- Delay Function
- Discount Function
- Time Discount
- Fading Procedure