Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 705–709 | Cite as

Two effects of repetition: Support for a dual-process model of know judgments and exclusion errors

  • Larry L. JacobyEmail author
  • Todd C. Jones
  • Patrick O. Dolan
Brief Reports


In three experiments, aremember/know recognition test (Experiments 1–2) and an exclusion test (Experiments 2–3) were used to examine effects of repeated study presentations. An effect of study repetition was obtained for remember but not know judgments, similar to results reported by Gardiner, Kaminska, Dixon, and Java (1996). Experiment 2 demonstrated the similarity between know responses and exclusion errors; neither was affected by repeated study presentations. In Experiment 3, a response deadline procedure was used to show that exclusion errors are the product of two opposing processes—recollection and familiarity—both of which are influenced by repetition. The interpretation of exclusion errors and know responses is shown to require a dual-process model that includes an assumption about the relationship between processes.


Recognition Memory False Alarm Rate Journal ofExperimental Psychology Study Repetition Journal ofMemory 
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Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Larry L. Jacoby
    • 1
    Email author
  • Todd C. Jones
    • 1
  • Patrick O. Dolan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyNew York UniversityNew York

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