Advertisement

Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation

, Volume 3, Issue 5, pp 237–239 | Cite as

The tonic immobility reaction in chickens: Response characteristics and methodology

  • Gordon G. Gallup
  • Richard F. Nash
  • Alan M. Wagner
Methods & Designs

Abstract

A total of 379 chickens were run in five studies to assess the effect of different procedures on tonic immobility and to measure some of the response components of the reaction. The optimal period of manual restraint, by way of producing the most durable immobility response, was found to be 15 sec, and pretest holding conditions were shown to exert a significant influence on the reaction in naive birds. Birds who defecated during immobility or shortly after termination, remained immobile longer than comparable nondefecators. Duration of eye closure and latency of vocalization were also found to be good predictors of the duration of an immobility episode.

Keywords

NASH Tonic Immobility Immobility Reaction Habituation Trial Animal Hypnosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. GALLUP, G. G., JR., CREEKMORE, H. S., HILL, W. E., III. Shock-enhanced immobility reactions in chickens: Support for the fear hypothesis. The Psychological Record, 1970, 20, 243–245.Google Scholar
  2. GALLUP, G. G., JR., NASH, R. F., & ELLISON, A. L., JR. Tonic immobility as a reaction to predation: Artificial eyes as a fear stimulus for chickens. Psychonomic Science, 1971, 23, 79–80.Google Scholar
  3. GALLUP, G. G., JR., NASH, R. F., POTTER, R. J., & DONEGAN, N. H. Effect of varying conditions of fear on immobility reactions in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus). Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 1970, 73, 442–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. GILMAN, T. T., MARCUSE, F. L., & MOORE, A. M. Animal hypnosis: A study in the induction of tonic immobility in animals. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 1950, 43, 99–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. PRESTRUDE, A. M., & CRAWFORD, F. T. Tonic immobility in the lizard, Iguana iguana. Animal Behaviour, 1970, 18, 391–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. RATNER, S. C. Comparative aspects of hypnosis. In J. E. Gordon (Ed.), Handbood of clinical and experimental hypnosis. New York: Macmillan, 1967. Pp. 550–587.Google Scholar
  7. RATNER, S. C., & THOMPSON, R. W. Immobility reactions (fear) of domestic fowl as a function of age and prior experience. Animal Behaviour, 1960, 8, 186–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. SALZEN, E. A. Imprinting and the immobility reactions of domestic fowl. Animal Behaviour, 1963, 11, 66–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. SIMONOV, P. V., & PAIKIN, D. I. The role of emotional stress in the hypnotization of animals and man. In L. Chertok (Ed.), Psychophysiological mechanisms of hypnosis. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1969. Pp. 65–87.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gordon G. Gallup
    • 1
  • Richard F. Nash
    • 1
  • Alan M. Wagner
    • 1
  1. 1.Tulane UniversityNew Orleans

Personalised recommendations