Structured programming (SP) is a technique devised to improve the reliability and clarity of programs. In SP, control of program flow is restricted to three structures, sequence, IF THEN ELSE, and DO WHILE, or to a structure derivable from a combination of the basic three. Thus, a structured program does not need to use GO TOs or branches (unless it is written in a language that does not have statement forms corresponding to the SP structures, in which case, GO TOs may be used to simulate the structures). The result is a program built of modules that are highly independent of each other. In turn, this allows a programmer to be more confident that the code contains fewer logic errors and will be easier to debug and change in the future. However, SP may be less efficient than an unstructured counterpart. Another disadvantage is the relative difficulty of using SP with a language that doesn’t support it, although this situation is changing as languages are updated (e.g., FORTRAN 77).
Mills, H. D.How to write correct programs and know it (Report No. FSC 73-5008). Gaithersburg, Md: IBM Federal Systems Division, 1973.
Mills, H. D.Mathematical foundations for structured programming (Report No. FSC 72-6012). Gaithersburg, Md: IBM Federal Systems Division, 1972.
Baker, F. T. Chief programmer team management of production programming.IBM Systems Journal, 1972,9, 366–371.
Baker, F. T., &Mills, H. D. Chief programmer teams.Datamation, December 1973, pp. 55–57.
Bohm, C., &Jacopini, G. Flow diagrams, Turning machines, and languages with only two formation rales.Communications of the ACM, 1966,9, 366–371.
Conway, R., &Gries, D.An introduction to programming: A structured approach. Cambridge, Mass: Winthrop, 1973.
Dahl, O. J., Dijkstra, E. W., &Hoare, C. A. R.Structured programming. New York: Academic Press, 1972.
Dijkstra, E. W. Programming considered as a human activity.Proceedings of IFIP Congress 65. Washington, D. C: Spartan Books, 1965.
Dijkstra, E. W. GOTO statement considered harmful.Communications of the ACM, 1968,11, 147–148; 538; 541.
Dijkstra, E. W. Structured programming. In P. Naur & B. Randell (Eds.),Software engineering techniques. Brussels: NATO Scientific Affairs Division, 1969.
Hughes, J. K., &Michton, J. I.A structured approach to programming. Englewood Cliffs, N. J: Prentice-Hall, 1977.
McCracken, D. D. Revolution in programming.Datamation, December, 1973. Pp. 50–52.
McGowan, C. L., III, &Kelly, J. R.Top-down structured programming techniques. New York: Petrocelli-Charter, 1975.
Miller, E. F., &Lindamood, G. E. Structured programming: Top-down approach.Datamation, December 1973, pp. 55–57.
Yourdon, E.Techniques of program structure and design. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall, 1975.
About this article
Cite this article
Hunt, K.P. An introduction to structured programming. Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation 11, 229–233 (1979). https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03205654