Automated behavioral experiments with individually marked bees
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Two automated techniques for investigating appetitive conditioning in honeybees are described. In the first method, free-flying bees conditioned to color marks are detected automatically at their approach to a color target. The second method allows the detection and separation of individually marked bees. At least 10 different bees can be processed and differentially detected at the same time. Each bee may control its own reward and test procedure. Computeraided data analysis and experimental procedures are described. Illustrative experiments on conditioning and choice behavior are reported.