MINERVA 2: A simulation model of human memory

Abstract

An overview of a simulation model of human memory is presented. The model assumes: (1) that only episodic traces are stored in memory, (2) that repetition produces multiple traces of an item, (3) that a retrieval cue contacts all memory traces simultaneously, (4) that each trace is activated according to its similarity to the retrieval cue, and (5) that all traces respond in parallel, the retrieved information reflecting their summed output. The model has been applied with success to a variety of phenomena found with human subjects in frequency and recognition judgment tasks, the schema-abstraction task, and paired-associate learning. Application of the model to these tasks is briefly summarized.

References

  1. Bower, G. H. (1961). Application of a model to paired-associate learning.Psychometrika,26, 255–280.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Brewer, W. F., &Pani, J. R. (1983). The structure of human memory. In G. H. Bower (Ed.),The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (Vol. 17). New York: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Eich, J. M. (1982). A composite holographic associative recall model.Psychological Review,89, 627–661.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Elio, R., &Anderson, J. R. (1981). The effects of category generalizations and instance similarity on schema abstraction.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory,7, 397–417.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Hasher, L., &Zacks, R. T. (1979). Automatic and effortful processes in memory.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,108, 356–388.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Hinton, G. E., &Anderson, J. A. (1981).Parallel models of associative memory. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Hintzman, D. L. (1969). Apparent frequency as a function of frequency and the spacing of repetitions.Journal of Experimental Psychology,80, 139–145.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Hintzman, D. L., &Block, R. A. (1971). Repetition and memory: Evidence for a multiple-trace hypothesis.Journal of Experimental Psychology,88, 297–306.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Hintzman, D. L., &Gold, E. (1983). A congruity effect in the discrimination of presentation frequencies: Some data and a model.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society,21, 11–14.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Hintzman, D. L., Grandy, C. A., &Gold, E. (1981). Memory for frequency: A comparison of two multiple-trace theories.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory,7, 231–240.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Hintzman, D. L., &Ludlam, G. (1980). Differential forgetting of prototypes and old instances: Simulation by an exemplar-based classification model.Memory & Cognition,8, 378–382.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Hintzman, D. L., Nozawa, G., &Irmscher, M. (1982). Frequency as a nonpropositional attribute of memory.Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior,21, 127–141.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Hintzman, D. L., &Stern, L. D. (in press). A comparison of forgetting rates in frequency discrimination and recognition.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society.

  14. Homa, D., Cross, J., Cornell, D., Goldman, D., &Schwartz, S. (1973). Prototype abstraction and classification of new instances as a function of number of instances defining the prototype.Journal of Experimental Psychology,101, 116–122.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Homa, D., Sterling, S., &Trepel, L. (1981). Limitations of exemplar-based generalization and the abstraction of categorical information.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory,7, 418–439.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Homa, D., &Vosburoh, R. (1976). Category breadth and the abstraction of prototypical information.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory,2, 322–330.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Johnson, M. K., Raye, C. L., Wang, A. Y., &Taylor, T. H. (1979). Fact and fantasy: The roles of accuracy and variability in confusing imaginations with perceptual experiences.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory,5, 229–240.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Posner, M. I., &Keele, S. W. (1968). On the genesis of abstract ideas.Journal of Experimental Psychology,77, 353–363.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Posner, M. I., &Keele, S. W. (1970). Retention of abstract ideas.Journal of Experimental Psychology,83, 304–308.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Rosch, E., &Mervis, C. B. (1975). Family resemblances: Studies in the internal structure of categories.Cognitive Psychology,7, 573–605.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Semon, R. (1923).Mnemic psychology. London: George Allen & Unwin.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Smith, E. E., &Medin, D. L. (1981).Categories and concepts. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Douglas L. Hintzman.

Additional information

This research was supported in part by National Science Foundation Grant BNS-7824987 and in part by a fellowship to the author from the James McKeen Cattell Fund. Thanks are due also to the MRC Applied Psychology Unit, Cambridge, England, for the use of their facilities in some of this work.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hintzman, D.L. MINERVA 2: A simulation model of human memory. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers 16, 96–101 (1984). https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03202365

Download citation

Keywords

  • Memory Trace
  • Primary Memory
  • Secondary Memory
  • Recognition Judgment
  • Category Exemplar