Contrary to predictions of current solution process models, adults used a variety of procedures other than retrieval to solve addition and multiplication math facts. Predictors assumed to capture retrieval processes posited by such models did account for a substantial proportion of variance in averaged retrieval solution times. But most of the variance in individual participants’ retrieval times remained unaccounted for. Cross-operation associations in patterns of strategy use and retrieval latencies were obtained. Adults with stronger higher level math achievement were more likely to use retrieval, solved math facts faster and less variably, and executed retrieval processes posited by current solution process models faster than participants with less math attainment. The results are explained within the context of the adaptive strategy choice model.
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Hecht, S.A. Individual solution processes while solving addition and multiplication math facts in adults. Mem Cogn 27, 1097–1107 (1999). https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03201239