Advertisement

Memory & Cognition

, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 884–902 | Cite as

Exposure effects on music preference and recognition

  • Isabelle PeretzEmail author
  • Danielle Gaudreau
  • Anne-Marie Bonnel
Article

Abstract

In three experiments, the effects of exposure to melodies on their subsequent liking and recognition were explored. In each experiment, the subjects first listened to a set of familiar and unfamiliar melodies in a study phase. In the subsequent test phase, the melodies were repeated, along with a set of distractors matched in familiarity. Half the subjects were required to rate their liking of each melody, and half had to identify the melodies they had heard earlier in the study phase. Repetition of the studied melodies was found to increase liking of the unfamiliar melodies in the affect task and to be best for detection of familiar melodies in the recognition task (Experiments 1, 2, and 3). These memory effects were found to fade at different time delays between study and test in the affect and recognition tasks, with the latter leading to the most persistent effects (Experiment 2). Both study-to-test changes in melody timbre and manipulation of study tasks had a marked impact on recognition and little influence on liking judgments (Experiment 3). Thus, all manipulated variables were found to dissociate the memory effects in the two tasks. The results are consistent with the view that memory effects in the affect and recognition tasks pertain to the implicit and explicit forms of memory, respectively. Part of the results are, however, at variance with the literature on implicit and explicit memory in the auditory domain. Attribution of these differences to the use of musical material is discussed.

Keywords

Recognition Task Journal ofExperimental Psychology Implicit Memory Explicit Memory Memory Effect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Attneave, F., &Olson, R. (1971). Pitch as a medium: A new approach to psychophysical scaling.American Journal of Psychology,84, 147–166.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bartlett, J., &Dowling, J. (1980). The recognition of transposed melodies: A key-distance effect in development perspective.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance,6, 501–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bartlett, J., Halpern, A., &Dowling, J. (1995). Recognition of familiar and unfamiliar melodies in normal aging and Alzheimer’s disease.Memory & Cognition,23, 531–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bassili, J. N., Smith, M. C., &MacLeod, C. M. (1989). Auditory and visual word-stem completion: Separating data-driven and conceptually driven processes.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,41A, 439–453.Google Scholar
  5. Berthier, J. E. (1979).1000 chants. Paris: Les Presses de l’Ile-de-France.Google Scholar
  6. Biederman, R., &Cooper, L. (1992). Size invariance in visual object priming.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance,18, 121–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bornstein, R. (1989). Exposure and affect: Overview and meta-analysis of research 1968–1987.Psychological Bulletin,106, 265–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bornstein, R., &d’Agostino, P. (1994). The attribution and discounting of perceptual fluency: Preliminary tests of a perceptual fluency/ attributional model of the mere exposure effect.Social Cognition,12, 103–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brickman, P., Redfield, J., Harrison, A., &Crandall, R. (1972). Drive and predisposition as factors in the attidudinal effects of mere exposure.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology,8, 31–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carlesimo, G. A., Marfia, G. A., Loasses, A., &Caltagirone, C. (1994). Perceptual and conceptual components in implicit and explicit stem completion.Neuropsychologia,34, 785–792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cave, C. B., Bost, P. R., &Cobb, R. E. (1996). Effects of color and pattern on implicit and explicit picture memory.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,22, 639–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cave, C. B., &Squire, L. R. (1992). Intact and long-lasting repetition priming in amnesia.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,18, 509–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chiu, C.-Y., &Schacter, D. L. (1995). Auditory priming for nonverbal information: Implicit and explicit memory for environmental sounds.Consciousness & Cognition,4, 440–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Church, B. A., &Schacter, D. L. (1994). Perceptual specificity of auditory priming: Implicit memory for voice intonation and fundamental frequency.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,20, 521–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cooper, L. A., Schacter, D. L., Ballesteros, S., &Moore, C. (1992). Priming and recognition of transformed three-dimensional objects: Effects of size and reflection.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,18, 43–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Craik, F., Moscovitch, M., &McDowd, J. (1994). Contributions of surface and conceptual information to performance on implicit and explicit memory tasks.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,20, 864–875.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cross, I., Howell, P., &West, R. (1983). Preferences for scale structure in melodic sequences.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance,9, 444–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dorfman, D. D., &Alf, E., Jr. (1969). Maximum likelihood estimation of parameters of signal detection theory and determination of confidence interval-rating-method data.Journal of Mathematical Psychology,6, 487–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dowling, J., &Fujitani, D. (1971). Contour, interval, and pitch recognition in memory for melodies.Journal of the Acoustical Society of America,49, 524–531.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Ellis, H., Shepherd, J., &Davies, G. (1979). Identification of familiar and unfamiliar faces from internal and external features: Some implications for theories of face recognition.Perception,8, 431–439.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Gilliland, A., &Moore, H. (1924). The immediate and long-time effects of classical and popular phonograph selections.Journal of Applied Psychology,8, 309–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Goldinger, S. (1996). Words and voices: Episodic traces in spoken word identification and recognition memory.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,22, 1166–1183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Graf, P., &Mandler, G. (1984). Activation makes words more accessible, but not necessarily more retrievable.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,23, 553–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Graf, P., Mandler, G., &Haden, P. E. (1982). Simulating amnesic symptoms in normals.Sciences,218, 1243–1244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Green, D. M., &Swets, J. A. (1966).Signal detection theory and psychophysics. New York: Wiley. (Reprinted 1974 by Krieger, Huntington, New York)Google Scholar
  26. Greve, K. W., &Bauer, R. M. (1990). Implicit learning of new faces in prosopagnosia: An application of the mere exposure paradigm.Neuropsychologia,28, 1035–1041.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Heingartner, A., &Hall, J. (1974). Affective consequences in adults and children of repeated exposure to auditory stimuli.Journal of Personality & Social Psychology,29, 719–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Heyduk, R. G. (1975). Rated preference for musical compositions as it relates to complexity and exposure frequency.Perception & Psychophysics,17, 84–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jacoby, L. L., &Dallas, M. (1981). On the relationship between autobiographical memory and perceptual learning.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,110, 306–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jacoby, L. L., &Kelley, C. M. (1987). Unconscious influences of memory for a prior event.Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin,13, 314–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Java, R., &Gardiner, J. (1991). Priming and aging: Further evidence of preserved memory function.American Journal of Psychology,104, 89–100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Java, R., Kaminska, Z., &Gardiner, J. (1995). Recognition memory and awareness for famous and obscure musical themes.European Journal of Cognitive Psychology,7, 41–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Johnson, M., Kim, J., &Risse, G. (1985). Do alcoholic Korsakoff ’s syndrome patients acquire affective reactions?Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,11, 22–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Klatzky, R. L., &Forrest, F. H. (1984). Recognizing familiar and unfamiliar faces.Memory & Cognition,12, 60–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Krugman, H. (1943). Affective responses to music as a function of familiarity.Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology,38, 388–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lieberman, L., &Walters, W. (1968). Effects of repeated listening on connotative meaning of serious music.Perceptual & Motor Skills,26, 891–895.Google Scholar
  37. Light, L., &Singh, A. (1987). Implicit and explicit memory in young and older adults.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,13, 531–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lupker, S., Harbuk, J., &Patrick, A. (1991). Memory for things forgotten.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,17, 897–907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. MacMillan, N. A., &Creelman, C. D. (1991).Detection theory: A user’s guide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Mandler, G. (1980). Recognizing: The judgment of previous occurrence.Psychological Review,87, 252–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mandler, G., Nakamura, Y., &Van Zandt, B. (1987). Nonspecific effects of exposure to stimuli that cannot be recognized.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,13, 646–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Marsolek, C. J., Kosslyn, S. M., &Squire, L. R. (1992). Form-specific visual priming in the right cerebral hemisphere.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,18, 492–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Meyer, M. (1903). Experimental studies in the psychology of music.American Journal of Psychology,14, 456–478.Google Scholar
  44. Micco, A., &Masson, M. (1991). Implicit memory for new associations: An interactive process approach.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,17, 1105–1123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Moore, T. (1914). The genetic aspect of consonance and dissonance.Psychological Monographs (Whole No. 73).Google Scholar
  46. Moscovitch, M., Vriezen, E., &Goshen-Gottstein, Y. (1993). Implicit tests of memory in patients with focal lesions or degenerative brain disorders. In H. Spinnler & F. Boller (Eds.),Handbook of neuropsychology (Vol. 8, pp.133–173). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  47. Mull, H. (1957). The effect of repetition upon enjoyment of modern music.Journal of Psychology,43, 155–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nelson, D. L., Shreiber, T. A., &Holley, P. E. (1992). The retrieval of controlled and automatic aspects of meaning on direct and indirect tests.Memory & Cognition,20, 671–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Park, D., &Shaw, R. (1992). Effect of environmental support on implicit and explicit memory in younger and older adults.Psychology & Aging,7, 632–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Peretz, I. (1996). Can we lose memory for music? A case of music agnosia in a nonmusician.Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience,8, 481–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Peretz, I., Babaï, M., Lussier, I., Hébert, S., &Gagnon, L. (1995). Corpus d’extraits musicaux: Indices relatifs à la familiarité, à l’âge d’acquisition et aux évocations verbales.Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology,49, 211–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Radvansky, G., Fleming, K., &Simmons, J. (1995). Timbre reliance in nonmusicians’ and musicians’ memory for melodies.Music Perception,13, 127–140.Google Scholar
  53. Rajaram, S., &Roediger, H. L., III (1993). Direct comparison of four implicit memory tests.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,19, 765–776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Roediger, H. L., III, &McDermott, K. (1993). Implicit memory in normal human subjects. In F. Boller & J. Grafman (Eds.),Handbook of Neuropsychology (Vol. 8, pp. 63–131). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  55. Roediger, H. L., III,Weldon, M. L., Stadler, M. L., &Riegler, G. L. (1992). Direct comparison of two implicit memory tests: Word fragment and word stem completion.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,18, 1251–1269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Russel, P. (1987). Memory for music: A study of musical and listener factors.British Journal of Psychology,78, 335–347.Google Scholar
  57. Schacter, D. L. (1987). Implicit memory: History and current status.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,13, 501–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Schacter, D. L., Bowers, J., &Booker, J. (1989). Intentional awareness and implicit memory: The retrieval intentionality criterion. In S. Lewandowsky, J. Dunn, & K. Kirsner (Eds.),Implicit memory: Theoretical issues (pp. 47–65). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  59. Schacter, D. L., &Church, B. A. (1992). Auditory priming: Implicit and explicit memory for words and voices.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,18, 915–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Schacter, D. L., &Church, B. [A.] (1995). Implicit memory in amnesic patients: When is auditory priming spared?Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society,1, 434–442.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Schacter, D. L., Church, B. [A.], &Bolton, E. (1995). Implicit memory in amnesic patients: Impairment of voice-specific priming.Psychological Science,6, 20–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Schacter, D. L., Church, B. A., &Osowiecki, D. (1994). Auditory priming in elderly adults: Impairment of voice-specific implicit memory.Memory,2, 295–323.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Schacter, D. L., Church, B. [A.], &Treadwell, J. (1994). Implicit memory in amnesic patients: Evidence for spared auditory priming.Psychological Science,5, 20–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Schacter, D. L., Cooper, L. A., &Delaney, S. M. (1990). Implicit memory for unfamiliar objects depends on access to structural descriptions.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,119, 5–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Schacter, D. L., Cooper, L. A., Delaney, S. M., Peterson, M. A., &Tharan, M. (1991). Implicit memory for possible and impossible objects: Constraints on the construction of structural descriptions.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,17, 3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Schacter, D. L., Cooper, L. A., &Teadwell, J. (1993). Preserved priming of novel objects across size transformation in amnesic patients.Psychological Science,4, 331–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Schacter, D. L., &Tulving, E. (Eds.) (1994).Memory systems. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, Bradford Books.Google Scholar
  68. Seamon, J. G., Brody, N., &Kauff, D. M. (1983). Affective discrimination of stimuli that are not recognized: II. Effect of delay between study and test.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society,21, 187–189.Google Scholar
  69. Seamon, J. G., Ganor-Stern, D., Crowley, M. J., Wilson, S. M., Weber, W. J., O’Rourke, C. M., &Mahoney, J. K. (1997). A mere exposure effect for transformed three-dimensional objects: Effects of reflection, size, or color changes on affect and recognition.Memory & Cognition,25, 367–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Seamon, J. G., Williams, P. C., Crowley, M. J., Kim, I. J., Langer, S., Orne, P., &Wishengrad, D. (1995). The mere exposure effect is based on implicit memory: Effects of stimulus type, encoding conditions, and number of exposures on recognition and affect judgments.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,21, 711–721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Smith, J. D., &Melara, R. J. (1990). Aesthetic preference and syntactic prototypicality in music: `Tis the gift to be simple.Cognition,34, 279–298.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Snodgrass, J. G., Hishman, E., &Fan, J. (1996). The sensory match effect in recognition memory: Perceptual fluency or episodic trace?Memory & Cognition,24, 367–383.Google Scholar
  73. Squire, L. (1992). Memory and the hippocampus: A synthesis from findings with rats, monkeys, and humans.Psychological Review,99, 195–231.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Squire, L., Shimamura, A., &Graf, P. (1987). Strength and duration of priming effects in normal subjects and amnesic patients.Neuropsychologia,25, 195–210.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Tobias, B., Kihlstrom, J., &Schacter, D. L. (1992). Emotion and implicit memory. In S. Christanson (Ed.),The handbook of emotion and memory: Research and theory (pp. 67–92). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  76. Tulving, E. (1985). Memory and consciousness.Canadian Psychologist,26, 1–12.Google Scholar
  77. Tulving, E., &Schacter, D. L. (1990). Priming and human memory systems.Science,247, 301–306.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Van der Linden, M., Lories, G., &Cornille, M. (1993). The abstraction of a central tendency in amnesic patients.Cortex,29, 543–548.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Verveer, E., Barry, H., &Bousfield, W. (1933). Change in affectivity with repetition.American Journal of Psychology,45, 130–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Warrington, E. K., &Weiskrantz, L. (1970). Amnesic syndrome: Consolidation or retrieval?Nature,228, 628–630.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Washburn, M., Child, M., &Abel, T. (1927). The effects of immediate repetition on the pleasantness of music. In M. Schoen (Ed.),The effects of music (pp. 199–210). New York: Harcourt, Brace.Google Scholar
  82. Wilson, W. (1979). Feeling more than we can know: Exposure effects without learning.Journal of Personality & Social Psychology,37, 811–821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wolpert, R. (1990). Recognition of melody, harmonic accompaniment, and instrumentation: Musicians vs. nonmusicians.Music Perception,8, 95–106.Google Scholar
  84. Yonelinas, A. (1994). Receiver-operating characteristics in recognition memory: Evidence for a dual-process model.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,20, 1341–1354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Zajonc, R. (1968). Attitudinal effects of mere exposure.Journal of Personality & Social Psychology Monographs,9 (Pt. 2), 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isabelle Peretz
    • 1
    Email author
  • Danielle Gaudreau
    • 1
  • Anne-Marie Bonnel
    • 2
  1. 1.University of MontrealMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Center of Cognitive NeuroscienceCNRSMarseilleFrance

Personalised recommendations