Animal Learning & Behavior

, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp 375–383 | Cite as

Development of object permanence in the New Zealand parakeet (Cyanoramphus auriceps)

  • Mildred S. Funk


Eleven young kakarikis (Cyanoramphus auriceps) were tested on 15 object-permanence tasks in a standardized scale that has been used to assess the development of human infants, some nonhuman primates, and other mammals. The birds successfully completed all tasks in this scale, and many aspects of their testing were similar to human results, such as evidencing the A-not-B error. However, the birds differed slightly but significantly from human subjects in that some of the “invisible displacements” of the later tasks were performed before the earlier visible displacement tasks. These results may relate to common ecological activities of this species. Six of the birds were parent-raised; 5 were hand-raised. The hand-raised birds achieved criteria more quickly than did the parent-raised birds possibly because the former were more accustomed to the investigator and less distractible in the test situation.


Human Infant Multiple Cover Object Permanence Invisible Displacement Visible Displacement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mildred S. Funk
    • 1
  1. 1.Northwestern UniversityEvanston

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