After reading or listening to short passages, Ss attempted to recognize semantically changed sentences and paraphrases (syntactically and lexically changed sentences). The intervals between the original presentation and test ranged from 1 to 23 sec. In general, paraphrases were poorly detected after a brief time, supporting earlier findings that the exact wording of sentences is not stored in long-term memory. An exception was the high recognition of active-passive changes with the visual presentation. Recognition at the first test interval was significantly better after listening than after reading, although the eventual level of recognition memory was not different in the two modes. This result, consistent with other studies of modality effects in short-term memory, suggests that acoustic-phonetic memory played a role in the storage of the auditorally presented material.
KeywordsRecognition Memory Reading Speed Test Interval Test Sentence Founding Father
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