Judgment of frequency versus recognition confidence: Repetition and recursive reminding

Abstract

Judgments of presentation frequency (JOFs) were compared with recognition confidence ratings (RCRs) in a single memory experiment. Two differences were found: (1) Relative to the effect of exposure duration, frequency had a larger effect on JOF than it had on RCR. (2) Replicating a finding by Proctor (1977), normalized memory operating characteristic (zMOC) curves for JOF had slopes greater than 1.0, whereas those for RCR had slopes of less than 1.0. The slope difference was found to be attributable to the first study trial. The results are contrary to the hypothesis that a single strength or familiarity dimension underlies JOF and RCR. To explain both findings, a new hypothetical basis of JOF is proposed. Repetition is assumed to trigger study phase reminding, which, in turn, is encoded into memory. Remindings can be recursively embedded, and the depth of recursion, recollected at test, is the primary basis of JOF. The hypothesis appears consistent with a broad range of JOF findings.

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Correspondence to Douglas L. Hintzman.

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Hintzman, D.L. Judgment of frequency versus recognition confidence: Repetition and recursive reminding. Memory & Cognition 32, 336–350 (2004). https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03196863

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Keywords

  • Experimental Psychology
  • Recognition Memory
  • Test Item
  • Exposure Duration
  • Study Trial