Advertisement

Memory & Cognition

, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 336–350 | Cite as

Judgment of frequency versus recognition confidence: Repetition and recursive reminding

  • Douglas L. Hintzman
Article

Abstract

Judgments of presentation frequency (JOFs) were compared with recognition confidence ratings (RCRs) in a single memory experiment. Two differences were found: (1) Relative to the effect of exposure duration, frequency had a larger effect on JOF than it had on RCR. (2) Replicating a finding by Proctor (1977), normalized memory operating characteristic (zMOC) curves for JOF had slopes greater than 1.0, whereas those for RCR had slopes of less than 1.0. The slope difference was found to be attributable to the first study trial. The results are contrary to the hypothesis that a single strength or familiarity dimension underlies JOF and RCR. To explain both findings, a new hypothetical basis of JOF is proposed. Repetition is assumed to trigger study phase reminding, which, in turn, is encoded into memory. Remindings can be recursively embedded, and the depth of recursion, recollected at test, is the primary basis of JOF. The hypothesis appears consistent with a broad range of JOF findings.

Keywords

Experimental Psychology Recognition Memory Test Item Exposure Duration Study Trial 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Supplementary material

Hintzman-MC-2004.zip (6 kb)
Supplementary material, approximately 340 KB.

References

  1. Aggleton, J. P., &Brown, M.W. (1999). Episodic memory, amnesia and the hippocampal-anterior thalamic axis.Behavioral & Brain Sciences,22, 425–489.Google Scholar
  2. Bamber, D. (1979). State-trace analysis: A method of testing simple theories of causation.Journal of Mathematical Psychology,19, 137–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Banks, W. P. (1970). Signal detection theory and human memory.Psychological Bulletin,74, 81–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Begg, I., Maxwell, D., Mitterer, J. O., &Harris, G. (1986). Estimates of frequency: Attribute or attribution?Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,12, 496–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown, N. R. (1995). Estimation strategies and the judgment of event frequency.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,21, 1539–1553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Capaldi, E. J. (1967). A sequential hypothesis of instrumental learning. In K. W. Spence & J. T. Spence (Eds.),The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 1, pp. 67–156). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  7. Capaldi, E. J. (1994). The sequential view: From rapidly fading stimulus traces to the organization of memory and the abstract concept of number.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,1, 156–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clark, S. E., &Gronlund, S. D. (1996). Global matching models of recognition memory: How the models match the data.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,3, 37–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dempster, F. N. (1996). Distributing and managing the conditions of encoding and practice. In E. L. Bjork & R. A. Bjork (Eds.),Memory. San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  10. DiGirolamo, G. J., &Hintzman, D. L. (1997). First impressions are lasting impressions: A primacy effect in memory for repetitions.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,4, 121–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dunn, J. C., &Kirsner, K. (1988). Discovering functionally independent mental processes: The principle of reversed association.Psychological Review,95, 91–101.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Fisk, A. D., &Schneider, W. (1984). Memory as a function of attention, level of processing, and automatization.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,10, 181–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Flexser, A. J., &Bower, G. H. (1975). Further evidence regarding instructional effects on frequency judgments.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society,6, 321–324.Google Scholar
  14. Gillund, G., &Shiffrin, R. M. (1984). A retrieval model for both recognition and recall.Psychological Review,91, 1–67.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Glanzer, M., &Adams, J. K. (1990). The mirror effect in recognition memory: Data and theory.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,16, 5–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Greene, R. L. (1986). Effects of intentionality and strategy on memory for frequency.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,12, 489–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Greene, R. L. (1988). Generation effects in frequency judgment.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,14, 298–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Greene, R. L. (1989). Spacing effects in memory: Evidence for a twoprocess account.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,15, 371–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Greene, R. L., &Thapar, A. (1994). Mirror effect in frequency discrimination.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,20, 946–952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Harris, G., Begg, I., &Mitterer, J. (1980). On the relation between frequency estimates and recognition memory.Memory & Cognition,8, 99–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hasher, L., &Chromiak, W. (1977). The processing of frequency information: An automatic mechanism?Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,16, 173–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hasher, L., &Zacks, R. T. (1979). Automatic and effortful processes in memory.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,108, 356–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hintzman, D. L. (1969). Apparent frequency as a function of frequency and the spacing of repetitions.Journal of Experimental Psychology,80, 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hintzman, D. L. (1970). Effects of repetition and exposure duration on memory.Journal of Experimental Psychology,83, 435–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hintzman, D. L. (1982). Are presentation frequency and spatial nu-merosity distinct attributes of memory?Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society,20, 196–198.Google Scholar
  26. Hintzman, D. L. (1988). Judgments of frequency and recognition memory in a multiple-trace memory model.Psychological Review,95, 528–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hintzman, D. L. (2001a). Judgments of frequency and recency: How they relate to reports of subjective awareness.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,27, 1347–1358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hintzman, D. L. (2001b). Similarity, global matching, and judgments of frequency.Memory & Cognition,29, 547–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hintzman, D. L., &Block, R. A. (1970). Memory judgments and the effects of spacing.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,9, 561–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hintzman, D. L., &Block, R. A. (1973). Memory for the spacing of repetitions.Journal of Experimental Psychology,99, 70–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hintzman, D. L., Block, R. A., &Summers, J. J. (1973). Modality tags and memory for repetitions: Locus of the spacing effect.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,12, 229–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hintzman, D. L., &Curran, T. (1994). Retrieval dynamics of recognition and frequency judgments: Evidence for separate processes of familiarity and recall.Journal of Memory & Language,33, 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hintzman, D. L., &Curran, T. (1995). When encoding fails: Instructions, feedback, and registration without learning.Memory & Cognition,23, 213–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hintzman, D. L., Curran, T., &Caulton, D. A. (1995). Scaling the episodic familiarities of pictures and words.Psychological Science,6, 308–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hintzman, D. L., Curran, T., &Oppy, B. (1992). Effects of similarity and repetition on memory: Registration without learning?Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,18, 667–680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hintzman, D. L., &Gold, E. (1983). A congruity effect in the discrimination of presentation frequencies: Some data and a model.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society,21, 11–14.Google Scholar
  37. Hintzman, D. L., Nozawa, G., &Irmscher, M. (1982). Frequency as a nonpropositional attribute of memory.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,21, 127–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hintzman, D. L., &Rogers, M. K. (1973). Spacing effects in picture memory.Memory & Cognition,1, 430–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hintzman, D. L., &Stern, L. D. (1978). Contextual variability and memory for frequency.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning & Memory,4, 539–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hintzman, D. L., &Stern, L. D. (1984). A comparison of forgetting rates in frequency discrimination and recognition.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society,22, 409–412.Google Scholar
  41. Hintzman, D. L., Summers, J. J., &Block, R. A. (1975a). Spacing judgments as an index of study-phase retrieval.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning & Memory,1, 31–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hintzman, D. L., Summers, J. J., &Block, R. A. (1975b). What causes the spacing effect? Some effects of repetition, duration, and spacing on memory for pictures.Memory & Cognition,3, 287–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Howell, W. C. (1973). Storage of events and event frequencies: A comparison of two paradigms in memory.Journal of Experimental Psychology,98, 260–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Huppert, F. A., &Piercy, M. (1978). The role of trace strength in recency and frequency judgements by amnesic and control subjects.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,30, 347–354.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Johnson, M. K., Hashtroudi, S., &Lindsay, D. S. (1993). Source monitoring.Psychological Bulletin,114, 3–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Johnston, W. A., &Uhl, C. N. (1976). The contributions of encoding effort and variability to the spacing effect on free recall.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning & Memory,2, 153–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jonides, J., &Jones, C. M. (1992). Direct coding for frequency of occurrence.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,18, 368–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Macmillan, N. A., &Creelman, C. D. (1991).Detection theory: A user’s guide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Magliero, A. (1983). Pupil dilations following pairs of identical and related to-be-remembered words.Memory & Cognition,11, 609–615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mayes, A. R., Baddeley, A. D., Cockburn, J., Meudell, P. R., Pickering, A., &Wilson, B. (1989). Why are amnesic judgments of recency and frequency made in a qualitatively different way from those of normal people?Cortex,25, 479–488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. McCormack, T., &Russell, J. (1997). The development of recency and frequency memory: Is there a developmental shift from reliance on trace-strength to episodic recall?Journal of Experimental Child Psychology,66, 376–392.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Meudell, P. R., Mayes, A. R., Ostergaard, A., &Pickering, A. (1985). Recency and frequency judgments in alcoholic amnesics and normal people with poor memory.Cortex,21, 487–512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Mitchell, K. J., &Johnson, M. K. (2000). Source monitoring: Attributing mental experiences. In E. Tulving & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.),The Oxford handbook of memory (pp. 179–195). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Murdock, B., Smith, D., &Bai, J. (2001). Judgments of frequency and recency in a distributed memory model.Journal of Mathematical Psychology,45, 564–602.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Naveh-Benjamin, M., &Jonides, J. (1985). The effects of rehearsal on frequency coding.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society,23, 387–390.Google Scholar
  56. Proctor, R. W. (1977). The relationship of frequency judgments to recognition: Facilitation of recognition and comparison to recognition-confidence judgments.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning & Memory,3, 679–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ratcliff, R., Sheu, C.-F., &Gronlund, S. D. (1992). Testing global memory models using ROC curves.Psychological Review,99, 518–535.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Rose, R. J., &Rowe, E. J. (1976). Effects of orienting task and spacing of repetitions on frequency judgments.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning & Memory,2, 142–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rowe, E. J. (1974). Depth of processing in a frequency judgment task.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,13, 638–643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sheffert, S. M., &Shiffrin, R. (2003). Auditory registration without learning.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,29, 10–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Shiffrin, R. [M.] (2003). Modeling memory and perception.Cognitive Science,27, 341–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Shiffrin, R. M., &Steyvers, M. (1997). A model for recognition memory: REM — retrieving effectively from memory.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,4, 145–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Snodgrass, J. G., &Corwin, J. (1988). Pragmatics of measuring recognition memory: Application to dementia and amnesia.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,117, 34–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Thios, S. J., &D’Agostino, P. R. (1976). Effects of repetition as a function of study-phase retrieval.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,15, 529–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Tzeng, O. J. L., &Cotton, B. (1980). A study-phase retrieval model of temporal coding.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning & Memory,6, 705–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Underwood, B. J. (1969a). Attributes of memory.Psychological Review,76, 519–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Underwood, B. J. (1969b). Some correlates of item repetition in free-recall learning.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,8, 83–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Van Zandt, T. (2000). ROC curves and confidence judgments in recognition memory.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,26, 582–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Winograd, E., &Solway, R. M. (1985). Reminding as a basis for temporal judgments.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,11, 262–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Yonelinas, A. P. (2002). The nature of recollection and familiarity: A review of 30 years of research.Journal of Memory & Language,46, 441–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of OregonEugene

Personalised recommendations