Advertisement

Memory & Cognition

, Volume 29, Issue 3, pp 424–432 | Cite as

False recall and false recognition induced by presentation of associated words: Effects of retention interval and level of processing

  • Anjali Thapar
  • Kathleen B. McDermott
Article

Abstract

The effects of retention interval and level of processing on false recall and false recognition of associates were examined. False recall and false recognition were induced by presenting subjects with words closely associated with a nonstudied word. Both level of processing and retention interval affected false recall (Experiment 1) and false recognition (Experiment 2) in the same direction with which they affected accurate recall and accurate recognition. That is, semantically processed lists exhibited higher levels of later false recall and false recognition than did superficially processed lists. Furthermore, a decline in false recall and false recognition occurred across retention intervals of 0, 2, and 7 days. However, the decline in false recall and false recognition was less pronounced than the decline in accurate recall and accurate recognition. Results are consistent with source monitoring and fuzzy trace explanations of false recall and false recognition.

Keywords

Retention Interval False Memory Study List Item Type False Recognition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Barclay, C. R., &Wellman, H. M. (1986). Accuracies and inaccuracies in autobiographical memories.Journal of Memory & Language,25, 93–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Craik, F. I. M., &Lockhart, R. S. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework for memory research.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,4, 671–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Craik, F. I. M., &Tulving, E. (1975). Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,104, 671–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Deese, J. (1959). On the prediction of occurrence of particular verbal intrusions in immediate recall.Journal of Experimental Psychology,58, 17–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Johnson, M. K., Hashtroudi, S., &Lindsay, D. S. (1993). Source monitoring.Psychological Bulletin,114, 3–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Johnson, M. K., &Raye, C. L. (1981). Reality monitoring.Psychological Review,88, 67–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Koutstaal, W., Schacter, D. L., Galluccio, L., &Stofer, K. A. (1999). Reducing gist-based false recognition in older adults: Encoding and retrieval manipulations.Psychology & Aging,14, 220–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Leicht, K. L. (1968). Recall and judged frequency of implicitly occurring words.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,7, 918–923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Loftus, G. R. (1985). Evaluating forgetting curves.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,11, 397–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Mather, M., Henkel, L. A., &Johnson, M. K. (1997). Evaluating characteristics of false memories: Remember/know judgments and memory characteristics questionnaire compared.Memory & Cognition,25, 826–837.Google Scholar
  11. McDermott, K. B. (1996). The persistence of false memories in list recall.Journal of Memory & Language,35, 212–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. McDermott, K. B. (1997). Priming on perceptual implicit memory tests can be achieved through presentation of associates.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,4, 582–586.Google Scholar
  13. McDermott, K. B., & Watson, J. M. (in press). The rise and fall of false recall: The impact of presentation duration.Journal of Memory & Language.Google Scholar
  14. Neely, J. H. (1991). Semantic priming effects in visual word recognition: A selective review of current findings and theories. In D. Besner & G.W. Humphreys (Eds.),Basic processing in reading: Visual word recognition (pp. 264–336). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  15. Norman, K. A., &Schacter, D. L. (1997). False recognition in younger and older adults: Exploring the characteristics of illusory memories.Memory & Cognition,25, 838–848.Google Scholar
  16. Payne, D. G., Elie, C. J., Blackwell, J. M., &Neuschatz, J. S. (1996). Memory illusions: Recalling, recognizing, and recollecting events that never occurred.Journal of Memory & Language,35, 261–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Read, J. D. (1996). From a passing thought to a false memory in 2 minutes: Confusing real and illusory events.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,3, 105–111.Google Scholar
  18. Reyna, V. F., &Brainerd, C. J. (1995). Fuzzy trace theory: An interim synthesis.Learning & Individual Differences,7, 1–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Reyna, V. F., &Kiernan, B. (1994). Development of gist versus verbatim memory in sentence recognition: Effects of lexical familiarity, semantic content, encoding instructions, and retention interval.Developmental Psychology,30, 178–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rhodes, M. G., &Anastasi, J. S. (2000). The effects of a levels-ofprocessing manipulation on false recall.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,7, 158–162.Google Scholar
  21. Roediger, H. L., III,Balota, D. A., &Watson, J. M. (2001). Spreading activation and the arousal of false memories. In H. L. Roediger III, J. S. Nairne, I. Neath, & A. M. Surprenant (Eds.),The nature of remembering: Essays in honor of Robert G. Crowder (pp. 95–115). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Roediger, H. L., III, &McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,21, 803–814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Roediger, H. L., III, &McDermott, K. B. (2000). Tricks of memory.Current Directions in Psychological Science,9, 123–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Roediger, H. L., III,McDermott, K. B., &Robinson, K. J. (1998). The role of associative processes in creating false memories. In M. A. Conway, S. E. Gathercole, & C. Cornoldi (Eds.),Theories of memory II (pp. 187–245). Hove, U.K.: Psychological Press.Google Scholar
  25. Sachs, J. S. (1967). Recognition memory for syntactic and semantic aspects of connected discourse.Perception & Psychophysics,2, 437–442.Google Scholar
  26. Schacter, D. L., Israel, L., &Racine, C. (1999). Suppressing false recognition in younger and older adults: The distinctiveness heuristic.Journal of Memory & Language,40, 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Schacter, D. L., Verfaellie, M., &Pradere, D. (1996). The neuropsychology of memory illusions: False recall and recognition in amnesic patients.Journal of Memory & Language,35, 319–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Slamecka, N. J. (1985). On comparing rates of forgetting: Comment on Loftus (1985).Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,11, 812–816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Spiro, R. J. (1980). Accomodative reconstruction in prose recall.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,19, 84–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Stadler, M. A., Roediger, H. L., III, &McDermott, K. B. (1999). Norms for word lists that create false memories.Memory & Cognition,27, 494–500.Google Scholar
  31. Sulin, R. A., &Dooling, D. J. (1974). Intrusion of a thematic idea in retention of prose.Journal of Experimental Psychology,103, 255–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Toglia, M. P., Neuschatz, J. S., &Goodwin, K. A. (1999). Recall accuracy and illusory memories: When more is less.Memory,7, 233–256.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Tulving, E. (1985). Memory and consciousness.Canadian Psychologist,26, 1–12.Google Scholar
  34. Tussing, A. A., &Greene, R. L. (1997). False recognition of associates: How robust is the effect?Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,4, 572–576.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyBryn Mawr CollegeBryn Mawr
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyWashington, University

Personalised recommendations